Are supplements worth buying? Nutritionist tells all

Nutritionist says we should obtain nutrients from food and has this advice on pills.

Are supplements worth buying?

Nutritionist Catherine Saxelby is passionate about helping people to eat delicious, healthy, seasonal food. In her book, Complete Food And Nutrition Companion: The Ultimate A-Z Guide, she presents clear guidelines on whether or not nutritional supplements are beneficial. This is an edited extract of her advice.

Ideally, it’s best to obtain your nutrients from food, not pills. Food provides vitamins and minerals in the most biologically available form, in the right amounts and combined with other complementary nutrients that work together as a team. For example, vitamin C increases the absorption of iron, vitamin E works with selenium and vitamin C as an antioxidant defence team, folate’s biochemistry is intertwined with that of vitamins B6 and B12 vitamins, and zinc is synergistic with vitamin A.

And of course, with food, there’s little risk of overdose except under special circumstances.

But there are times when you can’t eat a balanced diet or you have a health problem that may respond to higher intakes of one or more vitamins.

Tips for taking supplements
In recent years attitudes have changed, as numerous studies have emerged suggesting antioxidant supplements in particular are associated with better health profiles. If you choose to take a supplement, there are some general rules you should follow:

  • Take supplements with food or soon afterwards to help absorb them better.
  • Think of them only as a top-up to your daily diet.
  • Don’t take more than the suggested dosage.
  • Buy a reliable brand. Cheaper brands may not have the most biologically active form (for example, natural compared with synthetic vitamin E, calcium gluconate compared with carbonate) or they may have only tiny amounts.
  • Check the amount of the pure vitamin or mineral you’re getting – 1500 milligrams of calcium carbonate means 600 milligrams of pure calcium.
  • Be wary of exaggerated claims made on packs and in advertising. Often the scientific evidence is scanty, preliminary or consists of anecdotes from ‘satisfied’ patients.
  • A single study does not always prove the cause.
  • Chewable vitamin C tablets are so acidic they can dissolve tooth enamel; if you take them, rinse your mouth well afterwards.
  • Take an iron tablet with orange juice or a fruit rich in vitamin C to improve its absorption.
  • Check the label if you have an allergy – most supplements are free of yeast, dairy, gluten and seafood.
  • Distribute the dose over the day – two smaller tablets are usually better absorbed than one single one.


Getting the dose right
When taking any supplement, more is not better. Large single doses of certain vitamins and minerals can have undesirable side effects and even potential dangers. At high doses, vitamins act as drugs. They may interact with each other or with medications such as diuretics, anti-inflammatories, antibiotics or the contraceptive pill.

Vitamin or mineral: side effects of high doses
Vitamin A: Excess causes nausea, liver damage, dry itchy skin, hair loss, headaches and skin problems.

Beta-carotene: Turns the skin and whites of the eyes an orange-yellow colour (which slowly disappears once you cease consuming excess amounts). May also produce hair loss, nausea or blurred vision.

Vitamin D: More than 80 micrograms a day can lead to nausea, bone pain, liver damage, muscle weakness and lethargy. It also causes calcium to be deposited in soft tissues like the liver and kidneys.

Vitamin C: Not toxic, but doses greater than 2000 milligrams a day can cause upset stomach and diarrhoea. Increases the risk of iron overload.

Vitamin B6: More than 50 milligrams a day can lead to neuritis, a painful numbness or tingling in the hands and feet due to damage to the nerves.

Niacin: Mild flushing reaction at over 1000 milligrams a day.

Iron: May cause gastrointestinal upset or constipation. Can produce iron overload in someone with haemochromatosis (iron-storage disease). May interfere with absorption of zinc.

Selenium: Hair and nail loss, irritability, nerve damage.

Calcium: Can interfere with iron absorption.

What supplements can’t do
Supplements are not a magic cure-all, nor a short cut to better health. They can’t:

  • Guarantee you will get all 27 or so essential vitamins and minerals that you need.
  • Replace the huge number of natural phytochemicals in vegetables and fruit – over 600 carotenoids exist in plants, but you only get two or three of these in any pill (beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin).
  • Make up for a poor diet that’s too high in fat, salt and sugar and too low in fibre.
  • Allow you to ‘eat anything’ knowing you’ve taken your vitamins and minerals.
  • Give you more energy when you’re not getting enough sleep or are stressed or anxious.
  • Cure a cold or Alzheimer’s.

This is an edited extract from Catherine Saxelby’s Complete Food And Nutrition Companion: The Ultimate A-Z Guide published by Hardie Grant Books RRP $39.99.

Catherine Saxelby is a nutritionist and food blogger. In 2014, she received the Bruce Chandler Book Prize from the Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology for best food writing. She has also received awards from the Dietitians Association of Australia, Dairy Australia and the Food Media Club.

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    COMMENTS

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    19th Jul 2018
    12:25pm
    My nephrologist tells me that Vitamin C causes renal failure.
    KSS
    19th Jul 2018
    2:19pm
    And that's the issue with taking isolated supplemental nutrients. Vitamin C in say blueberries are not the issue. You wouldn't be able to eat enough to cause the problem. Swallow a couple of tablets though and you could be in all sorts of strife!
    Anonymous
    20th Jul 2018
    9:01pm
    High dosage of Vitamin C also causes Knee Osteoarthritis - Google for a study done in 2004 - Supplements industry did not want to do further such research I think.
    KSS
    19th Jul 2018
    2:18pm
    They only help if you have a genuine deficiency. If not you just have expensive pee!
    Bridgit
    19th Jul 2018
    5:25pm
    I get concerned when I read articles such as this that only give partial information.
    Re: VitD - you must take VitD3 plus VitK2 plus Magnesium otherwise calcium will not only end up in you kidneys and liver it will also end up in your arteries! Vit K2 prevents this from happening - also VitD3 is crucial for all of us when we age as we don't get enough to process from the sun.
    geordie
    20th Jul 2018
    7:21am
    Dissolvable magnesium tabs seem to help for my muscle cramps.
    *Loloften*
    31st Jul 2018
    10:25pm
    Powdered magnesium, D3, Glucosamine & max.1000mg Vit C all OK with my GP.....just warns abt regular Biotin (B7) intake as it can cause Hypothyroidism (as did in me...see below). Also recommends that Seniors have regular full blood tests, including apparently well-known to medical industry vitamin supplementation, especially Iron & the Biotin above.
    PlanB
    20th Jul 2018
    9:46am
    Magnesium sure stops my crippling cramps
    Polly
    20th Jul 2018
    3:36pm
    Studies are now showing that supplementing the body with high doses of antioxidants can actually be harmful.
    The safer and more effective way to reduce cellular damage caused by free radicals is to 'activate' the body to do more of what it is designed to do .... make its own antioxidants within each cell. This is the field of Nutrigenomics and can positively affect our genes! Great health benefits can be achieved using 'activation'!
    Incognito
    20th Jul 2018
    9:39pm
    From what I have read you need to check the type of ingredients in the supplements, there are better and worse types of magnesium for example, I take a powdered form that is marine magnesium made by Green Nutritionals. But yes ultimately better just to eat your nutrients, fresh vegies and fruit everyday, the fresher the better so grow some sprouts or leafy greens to maximize those micro-nutrients.
    PlanB
    21st Jul 2018
    10:16am
    Hard to get FRESH from the big two these days they are normally last years lot -- and taste nothing like they should and Coles and Woolies have seen to it that we no longer have private Green Grocers/bakers and Delis
    Incognito
    21st Jul 2018
    1:09pm
    I don't have any trouble getting fresh, I am lucky I order from someone who gets it from the markets every week, but also look around for farmers markets, can buy online at Farmhouse Direct, there might be other fresh veg and fruit deliveries in your area too.
    PlanB
    21st Jul 2018
    1:15pm
    No not really Music, have to travel for over an hour one way -- do get the odd fresh bits at the egg farm
    SKRAPI
    25th Jul 2018
    4:37pm
    Mag.Powder nor the spray seem 2 help stop my cramps or the oral oil or Epsom salts
    Incognito
    25th Jul 2018
    4:48pm
    Have you googled 'what causes cramps' you will find a lot of useful information. Can be caused by dehydration, medication, too much salt, and not enough nutrients.
    *Loloften*
    31st Jul 2018
    10:08pm
    WARNING....was recently diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Why - b/cause of Vit B7 (Biotin) in a Complex B vitamin I took 3-4days wkly. Since stopped taking them as insisted by my GP + prescribed the very lowest dose (50 micrograms) of the relevant tabs (Oroxine) for past 4mths gratefully all tests back to normal, altho' told by my thorough GP to keep taking 'em for now 'til next blood tests in a couple of mths. Just one example of the harm Vitamin supplements can unkowingly cause.
    Incognito
    31st Jul 2018
    10:41pm
    Why not get these from food? You just have to google the vitamin and will find what sources to eat more of.
    I also read that iron supplements can give you digestion problems.


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