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Today's Chat, No Set Topic

  

.........................................Something comes into your mind? share it, as everyone is different so all topics have followers :) Happy thoughts, sad thoughts or just reflective thoughts - let's enjoy chatting without agro or nastiness. Who knows what we might learn from each other..........................................:) 

(A combination of Lets Chat and Today in memory of Gerry, Geomac and Seth.) 

Today's Date Thursday 2nd February 2017 

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From the Parramatta article: These first forays into farming in Australia would prove successful. James Ruse’s ‘Experiment Farm’ was the first site at which grain was grown in Australia, followed by Elizabeth’s Farm, established by John Macarthur in 1793, the site of the beginning of the Australian wool industry.

Macarthur was one of the first colonisers to acquire merino sheep imported from England. He struck deals, used convict labour and laid the foundations for the country’s wool industry. He joined the Legislative Council in 1829, but just three years later, he was taken to Liverpool Lunatic Asylum by his family and pronounced insane.

 “He is now a wayward child and remains at home brooding,” wrote Governor Ralph Darling.  The declaration of his lunacy reads: “John Macarthur … for these three months last past, (has) been so depressed of his reason and understanding that he is altogether unfit and unable to govern himself or to manage his own affairs.” 

I visited John Macarthur’s Elizabeth Farm years ago and when I walked into one of the rooms in the house, the hairs stood up on the back of my neck.  I spoke about it to the attendant and she said ‘that’s the room where Macarthur went mad.  

 

Forgot to add that James Ruse Selective high school is an outstanding school for bright kids.

As almost 68,000 students reached the end of 13 years of schooling with the receipt of their Higher School Certificate marks on Thursday, one school proved again that it's at the top of the pile.

Selective school James Ruse Agricultural High School in Carlingford has taken out the first spot in the HSC for the 21st consecutive year, with student marks from an extraordinary 73 per cent of the school's exams scoring in the highest band.

Spooky for you at Elizabeth Farm Toot.

It was weird RnR, never happened before or since.

24 April – International Sculpture Day

Swell Festival, Currumbin, Queensland, sculpture by the sea – Erebus by Glen Star.

On this day:

1184 BC – Traditional date of the fall of Troy.
1558 – Mary, Queen of Scots, marries the Dauphin of France, François, at Notre Dame de Paris.
1885 – American sharpshooter Annie Oakley is hired by Nate Salsbury to be a part of Buffalo Bill's Wild West.
1916 – Easter Rising: Irish rebels, led by Patrick Pearse and James Connolly, launch an uprising in Dublin against British rule and proclaim an Irish Republic.
1918 – World's first battle between two tank forces, at Villers-Bretonneux, France, when three British Mark IVs meet three German A7Vs.
1942 – Barbra Streisand, American singer, actress, and producer is born
1953 – Winston Churchill is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
1990 – STS-31: The Hubble Space Telescope is launched from the Space Shuttle Discovery.
1993 – An IRA bomb devastates the Bishopsgate area of London.

The Trojan War

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.

The Trojan Horse, a ruse conducted by the Greeks to sneak past the Trojan Walls.

Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of James V of Scotland, was six days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne. The French king, Henry II, proposed to unite France and Scotland by marrying the young queen to his three-year-old son, the Dauphin Francis. With her marriage agreement in place, five-year-old Mary was sent to France to spend the next thirteen years at the French court, while Scotland was ruled by regents.

On 4 April 1558, Mary signed a secret agreement bequeathing Scotland and her claim to England to the French crown if she died without issue. Twenty days later, she married the Dauphin at Notre Dame de Paris, and Francis became king consort of Scotland. He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, and Mary briefly became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560 of a middle ear infection that led to an abscess in his brain. Her mother-in-law, Catherine de' Medici, became regent for the late king's ten-year-old brother Charles IX, who inherited the French throne. Mary returned to Scotland.

Mary (age 16) and Francis II (age 15) shortly after Francis was crowned King of France in 1559.

Annie Oakley circa 1899.

The Easter Rising in Ireland

The Easter Rising was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, April 1916. The Rising was launched by Irish republicans to end British rule in Ireland and establish an independent Irish Republic while the United Kingdom was heavily engaged in the First World War.

Proclamation of the Irish Republic, Easter 1916

German A7V Tank

Sole surviving German A7V World War I Mephisto tank captured in 1918.

In what has been described as a cheeky and courageous plan, Queenslanders and Tasmanians from the 26th Battalion, AIF recovered the tank under the cover of darkness. It was then transported from Europe, via London to Brisbane where it became a permanent exhibit at the Queensland Museum. The rare tank was moved temporarily to Canberra in 2015 to mark the 100th anniversary of significant WWI battles.

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-07-28/sole-surviving-german-wwi-tank-on-display-aust-war-memorial/6654320

Barbara Streisand

Streisand is one of the best-selling music artists of all time, with more than 68.5 million albums in the United States and with a total of 145 million records sold worldwide.

As Dolly Levi in the film Hello, Dolly! 1969

Winston Churchill

In 1953 Winston Churchill was invested as Knight of the Garter, becoming Sir Winston Churchill.

Hubble Space Telescope

STS-31 was the thirty-fifth mission of the American Space Shuttle program, which launched the Hubble Space Telescope astronomical observatory into Earth orbit. The mission used the Space Shuttle Discovery, which lifted off from Launch Complex 39B on 24 April 1990 from Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

The Hubble Space Telescope as seen from the departing Space Shuttle Atlantis, Service Mission 4.

One of Hubble's most famous images, "Pillars of Creation" shows stars forming in the Eagle Nebula, 2014.

1993 Bishopsgate bombing

Occurred on Saturday 24 April 1993, when the IRA detonated an ANFO truck bomb on Bishopsgate, a major thoroughfare in London's financial district, the City of London. A news photographer was killed in the explosion and 44 people were injured; the damage cost £350 million to repair.

Wormwood Street in the City of London after the bombing.

That tank was the one that sat at the front of the old Brisbane Museum?  It sat there for decades I always assumed that someone decided that it promoted the glories of war and had it hidden away.  I can remember crawling all over that thing as a child as I was dropped off there while my Dad visited Mum in the Royal Brisbane Hospital, never fell off and broke anything and was never bothered by anyone.  

Such happy memories.

So glad that it remains part of history and that it is seen more as a comment on mans ability to overcome adversity rather than glorifying war. 

That photo, 'Pillars of Creation' is fabulous RnR.... Love the stories...

 

So many wonderful sculptures in the world, this one by Gianlorenzo Bernini called The Rape of Persephone, shows his billiant skill with marble.

 

 

Peter Corlett's Simpson and his donkey, 1915, bronze. 

The War Memorial opened its Sculpture Garden in January 1999. The Garden is located to the west of the main building and offers a place for quiet contemplation of the sacrifice of the many Australians who have died in war.

 

 

Great to read about history RnR, poor Mary Queen of Scots - what a sad life, widowed after one year to a child who died of an ear infection (thank God for penicillin) then went on to an unhappy marriage, poor thing.  All the photos are fantastic.

Bernini's sculptures were amazing, thanks Toot, as is the work of Peter Corlett.

The Battle of Beersheba was fought on 31 October 1917. The ANZAC Mounted Division (Desert Mounted Corps) launched a series of attacks. These attacks, against the strong defences which dominated the eastern side of Beersheba, eventually resulted in their capture during the late afternoon. The Australian Mounted Division's 4th and 12th Light Horse Regiments (4th Light Horse Brigade) conducted a mounted infantry charge with bayonets in their hands, their only weapon for mounted attack, as their rifles were slung across their backs. While part of the two regiments dismounted to attack entrenchments on Tel es Saba defending Beersheba, the remainder of the light horsemen continued their charge into the town, capturing the place and part of the garrison as it was withdrawing.

Peter Corlett's sculpture of an ANZAC light horseman in the Park of the Australian Soldier, Beersheba.

Hi Rnr, for a long time this was reported as the last great cavalry charge, of course it wasn't as the Australians did not have cavalry as you stated they were Mounted Infantry or Light Horse.

One of the units involved was the Queensland Mounted Infantry, they led there horses a good part of the way, mounted and charged.  The Turks were caught napping and did not have time to correct their gun sights thus ensuring most of the rounds fired went over the heads of the attacking troops.

If the Australians had not taken Beersheeba in the first assault they would have perished, they had no water in reserve and the only water available was in the town.

Apparently, the German officer in charge of the Turkish troops discounted the Australians as nothing more than a rabble who weren't turned out much better than the Turks.

I believe it still stands as the last great mounted attack in history.

Thanks ex PS ... yes, an amazing achievement. There's murals beside my local roads up here depicting the event. I live quite close to Mudgeeraba. The 14th ALH Museum in Mudgeeraba preserves the memory of this aspect of our military history and are often seen as the mounted soldiers at the Currumbin dawn service on ANZAC Day.

LATEST UPDATE ON NOAH,    after 12 days in hospital NOAH was allowed home today,      he had pneumonia,    and the infection was in the blood,      THANKS to all for your kind thoughts and well wishes,      it was all greatly apprecieated,  one happy family tonight,  

Wow Cats ... happily the time since your last post about the situation seemed to go quickly. All the best to Noah.

THANK YOU RnR   YES,  its been a pretty harrowing few days for EBONY and SEAN,    hope no more mishaps,      with KAI,   the other boy having the accident ,    and plastic surgery,   its been full on for them,    they are a lovely young couple ,    but hopefully all is well now,    

25 April – ANZAC Day

Today especially remembering my father, my father-in-law and his brother-in-law James who was killed at age 24 on 13 April 1941 in Egypt and is buried at the Tobruk War Cemetery.

The number of deaths as a result of service with Australian units since 1860 as derived from the Roll of Honour is 102,825 – Australian War Memorial.

World Malaria Day

My dad contracted malaria serving in New Guinea during the war.

On this day:

1744 – Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer, physicist, and mathematician dies.
1792 – "La Marseillaise" (the French national anthem) is composed by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle.
1859 – British and French engineers break ground for the Suez Canal.
1901 – New York becomes the first U.S. state to require automobile registation plates.
1915 – Gallipoli campaign begins: The invasion of the Turkish Gallipoli Peninsula by British, French, Indian, Newfoundland, Australian and New Zealand troops, begins with landings at Anzac Cove and Cape Helles.
1916 – Anzac Day is commemorated for the first time on the first anniversary of the landing at ANZAC Cove.
1960 – The United States Navy submarine USS Triton completes the first submerged circumnavigation of the globe.

Anders Celsius

His Celsius temperature scale was proposed in a paper to the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, the oldest Swedish scientific society, founded in 1710. His thermometer was calibrated with a value of 100° for the freezing point of water and 0° for the boiling point. In 1745, a year after Celsius' death, the scale was reversed by Carl Linnaeus to facilitate more practical measurement. Celsius originally called his scale centigrade derived from the Latin for "hundred steps". For years it was simply referred to as the Swedish thermometer.

La Marseillaise

The national anthem of France, was written in 1792 by Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle in Strasbourg after the declaration of war by France against Austria. The song's lyric reflects the invasion of France by foreign armies (from Prussia and Austria) that were under way when it was written.

The melody soon became the rallying call to the French Revolution and was adopted as "La Marseillaise" after the melody was first sung on the streets by volunteers (fédérés in French) from Marseille.

Rouget de Lisle, composer of the Marseillaise, sings it for the first time at the home of Dietrich, Mayor of Strasbourg, 1849 painting by Isidore Pils.

Suez Canal

One of the first traverses in the 19th century.

Number Plates

Registration plates have been around for longer than there have been automobiles. France was the first country to introduce the registration plate with the passage of the Paris Police Ordinance on August 14, 1893, followed by Germany in 1896. The Netherlands was the first country to introduce a nationally registered licence plate, called a "driving permit", in 1898. Initially these plates were just sequentially numbered, starting at 1, but this was changed in 1906.

In the U.S., where each state issues plates, New York State has required plates since 1903 (black numerals on a white background) after first requiring in 1901 that only the owner's initials be clearly visible on the back of the vehicle. At first, plates were not government issued in most jurisdictions and motorists were obliged to make their own.

Battle of Gallipoli

Landing at Gallipoli on the morning of 25th April 1915. Some of the 1st brigade signals section in picture. Taken by A. Joyner, a lance corporal who was with my section as sergeant and was killed on December 5th, 1916 – Sergeant D.A. Reaburn.

Anzac Cove looking towards Ariburnu, 1915.

The cove is 600 metres long, bounded by the headlands of Ariburnu to the north and Little Ariburnu, known as Hell Spit, to the south. Following the landing at Anzac Cove, the beach became the main base for the Australian and New Zealand troops for the eight months of the Gallipoli campaign.

Simpson and his donkey in Shrapnel Gully at Anzac Cove, assisting a wounded soldier.

Gallipoli cost the Allies 141 000 casualties, of whom more than 44 150 died. Of the dead, 8709 were Australians, 2779 were New Zealanders, Great Britain and Ireland lost 21 255, France 10 000, India 1358 and the dead from Newfoundland numbered 49. The Turks suffered over 251 000 casualties, of whom 86 692 lost their lives.

First submerged circumnavigation of the globe.

Operation Sandblast was the code name for the first submerged circumnavigation of the world, executed by the United States Navy nuclear-powered radar picket submarine USS Triton in 1960 under the command of Captain Edward L. Beach.

The circumnavigation took place between 24 February and 25 April 1960, covering 26,723 nautical miles (49,491 km) over 60 days and 21 hours. The route began and ended at the St. Peter and Paul Rocks in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean near the Equator. During the voyage, Triton crossed the Equator four times while maintaining an average speed of 18 knots (33 km/h). Triton's overall navigational track during Operation Sandblast generally followed that of the first circumnavigation of the world, led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan from 1519 to 1522.

Loading the ship's stores.

Thanks RnR for another day of history, this time I was curious about the history of the Suez Canal.  Itl was closed twice, once when Israel/UK/France attacked Egypt in 1956, and a second time when Israel attacked Egypt and the rest of its neighbours in 1967. A bit scary to think that Egypt can shut down this vital waterway any time they please.  A bit of history I found.

The Suez Crisis begins when Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalizes the British and French-owned Suez Canal.

The Suez Canal, which connects the Mediterranean and Red Seas across Egypt, was completed by French engineers in 1869. For the next 87 years, it remained largely under British and French control, and Europe depended on it as an inexpensive shipping route for oil from the Middle East.

After World War II, Egypt pressed for evacuation of British troops from the Suez Canal Zone, and in July 1956 President Nasser nationalized the canal, hoping to charge tolls that would pay for construction of a massive dam on the Nile River. In response, Israel invaded in late October, and British and French troops landed in early November, occupying the canal zone. Under Soviet, U.S., and U.N. pressure, Britain and France withdrew in December, and Israeli forces departed in March 1957. That month, Egypt took control of the canal and reopened it to commercial shipping.

Ten years later, Egypt shut down the canal again following the Six Day War and Israel’s occupation of the Sinai peninsula. For the next eight years, the Suez Canal, which separates the Sinai from the rest of Egypt, existed as the front line between the Egyptian and Israeli armies. In 1975, Egyptian President Anwar el-Sadat reopened the Suez Canal as a gesture of peace after talks with Israel. Today, an average of 50 ships navigate the canal daily, carrying more than 300 million tons of goods a year.

'No-one cares mate: being a war veteran at 27'

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-04-25/being-a-war-veteran-at-27/8467046


Interesting story Toot. Adjusting to everyday trivial concerns must be gut-busting at times after all some see on active duty. Have often read about the same problems after WW1 and WW2, Korea, Vietnam, etc.

Being a revered, treasured and sometimes heroic member of a cohesive, disciplined, dedicated team on a mission to do something deemed extremely important by your colleagues, seeing atrocities and horrific injustices you can't unsee ... and then ... quite suddenly, being nobody in particular ... in a seemingly incohesive, undisciplined and disjointed world of diverse daily whinges about relatively unimportant matters ... while the carnage continues. Tough call.

26 April – International Guide Dog Day 2017, World Stationery Day


On this day:

1890 – A. B. "Banjo" Paterson's poem The Man from Snowy River is first published.
1916 – Writer Morris West, the author of The Devil's Advocate and The Shoes of the Fisherman, is born in St Kilda, Victoria.
1933 – The Gestapo, the official secret police force of Nazi Germany, is established.
1938 – Duane Eddy, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and actor is born.
1939 – Robert Menzies becomes Prime Minister of Australia, succeeding interim prime minister Sir Earle Page, who served for three weeks after the death of Joseph Lyons.
1945 – Dick Johnson, Australian race car driver is born.
1986 – A nuclear reactor accident occurs at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Soviet Union (now Ukraine), creating the world's worst nuclear disaster.
1970 – Melania Trump, Slovene-American model; First Lady of the United States; wife of United States President Donald Trump is born.

The Man from Snowy River

… is a poem by Australian bush poet Banjo Paterson. It was first published in The Bulletin, an Australian news magazine, on 26 April 1890, and was published by Angus & Robertson in October 1895, with other poems by Paterson, in The Man from Snowy River and Other Verses.

The front of the $10 banknote featuring Banjo Paterson and The Man from Snowy River.

Morris West

Morris Langlo West AO was an Australian novelist and playwright, best known for his novels The Devil's Advocate (1959), The Shoes of the Fisherman (1963) and The Clowns of God (1981). His books were published in 27 languages and sold more than 60 million copies worldwide. Each new book he wrote after he became an established writer sold more than one million copies.

Morris West Book List

The Gestapo

The Gestapo was the secret police of Nazi Germany and its main tool of oppression and destruction.

Members of the Gestapo, 1933

Duane Eddy

Duane Eddy was an American guitarist. In the late 1950s and early 1960s he had a string of hit records produced by Lee Hazlewood which were noted for their characteristically "twangy" sound, including "Rebel Rouser", "Peter Gunn", and "Because They're Young". He had sold 12 million records by 1963.

Listen via VIDEO: Peter Gunn

Robert Menzies

Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, PC, QC, FAA, FRS, was the Prime Minister of Australia from 1939 to 1941 and again from 1949 to 1966. He is Australia's longest-serving prime minister, serving over 18 years in total.

Australian Prime Minister, Robert Menzies, with his British counterpart, Sir Winston Churchill, London 1941.

Dick Johnson

Richard "Dick" Johnson is a part-owner of the V8 Supercar team DJR Team Penske and a former racing driver. As a driver, he was a five-time Australian Touring Car Champion and a three-time winner of the Bathurst 1000. As of 2008 Johnson has claimed over twenty awards and honours, including the V8 Supercars Hall of Fame into which he was inducted in 2001.

Chernobyl Disaster

The Chernobyl accident dominates the Energy accidents sub-category, of most disastrous nuclear power plant accident in history, both in terms of cost and casualties. The remains of the No.4 reactor building were enclosed in a large sarcophagus (radiation shield) by December 1986.

Four hundred times more radioactive material was released from Chernobyl than by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. Approximately 100,000 km² of land was significantly contaminated with fallout, with the worst hit regions being in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. Slighter levels of contamination were detected over all of Europe except for the Iberian Peninsula.

The town of Pripyat, in Ukraine, was just three kilometres from the Chernobyl power plant. Desolate hospitals, abandoned homes and scattered, broken possessions are all that is left of Pripyat and its 50,000 residents.

Images from Pripyat, 30 years after the event.

Melania Trump

Melania, born Melanija Knavs on April 26, 1970 in Slovenia (then part of Yugoslavia), became a permanent resident of the United States in 2001, and obtained U.S. citizenship in 2006. She grew up in a modest apartment in a housing block in Sevnica, in Slovenia's Lower Sava Valley. She has a sister and an elder half-brother, whom she reportedly has never met, from her father's previous relationship.

She began modelling at age 5 and started doing commercials at age 16. Applying as a model of "extraordinary ability", Melania obtained a green card and became a lawful permanent resident in the US in 2001. Melania met her future husband, Donald Trump at a Fashion Week party in New York City in September 1998.

Melania assumed the role of First Lady of the United States on January 20, 2017.

Melania as First Lady, with President Donald Trump, at the Liberty Ball on Inauguration Day.

Great photos RnR, some people make you wonder

……Disaster junkies and radioactivity enthusiasts flock from all over the world to make their nuclear pilgrimage to Chernobyl. There’s a shuttle from Kiev, frequent official tours, even a hotel you can stay overnight in. There’s even a report of a couple who got engaged in the Zone — apparently he asked the tour guide to guide them to the most contaminated spot possible, so he could make his proposal.

https://www.extremetech.com/extreme/248215-31-years-later-someone-turned-lights-pripyat


The activities of 'disaster junkies' and 'abandoned places explorers' are bizarre at times to me but then I think, without people like them, we would never know the ramifications of human decisions in our recent past. Must admit though, some do go to wacky extremes ... and to personal danger. Odd.

As it’s International Guide Dog Day today, I thought about the terrific job they do, as with other support dogs and pets. So wonderful for people with disabilities … including the ‘hearing dogs’ and those animals that bring joy to people in hospital or care centres. War, disability, ill health, good times, bad times … they’re there and they love you unconditionally.

27 April – World Tapir Day

World Tapir Day exists to raise awareness about the species of tapir that inhabit Central and South America and Southeast Asia and to raise funds to purchase land to protect it from human encroachment.

On this day:

1570 – Pope Pius V declares Queen Elizabeth I a heretic.
1804 – Explorer Matthew Flinders climbs Arthurs Seat, on the Mornington Peninsula in present-day Victoria.
1896 – Sir Henry Parkes, known as the "Father of Federation", dies in Annandale, New South Wales, at the age of 80.
1904 – The Australian Labor Party becomes the first such party to gain national government, under Chris Watson.
1945 – WW II: Benito Mussolini is arrested by Italian partisans in Dongo, while attempting escape disguised as a German soldier. The next day, Mussolini is shot by his captors.
1964 – Sir Garfield Barwick is appointed Chief Justice of Australia, succeeding Sir Owen Dixon.
1971 – Relics from the wreck of the Dutch East India Company ship Batavia which ran aground on 4 June 1629 are recovered off the coast of the Houtman Abrolhos in Western Australia.

Queen Elizabeth I

Elizabeth I, the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, the childless Elizabeth was the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.

Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan era. The period is famous for the flourishing of English drama, led by playwrights such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe, and for the seafaring prowess of English adventurers such as Francis Drake.

Elizabeth I in her coronation robes, patterned with Tudor roses and trimmed with ermine.

Matthew Flinders

On 17 April 1801, Matthew Flinders married his longtime friend Ann Chappelle and had hoped to bring her with him to Port Jackson. However the Admiralty had strict rules against wives accompanying captains. Flinders brought Ann on board ship and planned to ignore the rules, but the Admiralty learned of his plans and he was severely chastised for his bad judgment and told he must remove her from the ship. As a result, after three months of marriage, Ann was obliged to stay in England and would not see her husband for nine years, following his imprisonment on the Isle de France on his return journey.

When they finally reunited, Matthew and Ann had one daughter, Anne, born 1 April 1812, who later married William Petrie. Their son, William Matthew Flinders Petrie who would go on to become an accomplished archaeologist and egyptologist.

Arthurs Seat, view from Northern Lookout.

Captain Matthew Flinders climbed Arthurs Seat on 27 April 1802, noting in his log "The Bluff Mountain on the eastward I estimated at over 1000 feet high, and being near the waterside, possessed a favourable station for observation purposes. I ascended the hill and took an extensive set of bearings from the cleared place to be found on the north western bluff part of the hill."

Sir Henry Parkes

Sir Henry Parkes and the second Lady Parkes in the 1890s.

Benito Mussolini

From 1925, Mussolini styled himself Il Duce (the leader).

Sir Garfield Barwick

Sir Garfield Edward John Barwick, AK GCMG QC was the Attorney-General of Australia (1958–64), Minister for External Affairs (1961–64) and the seventh and longest serving Chief Justice of Australia (1964–81). He was an ad hoc judge of the International Court of Justice in 1973–74 in the Nuclear Tests (Australia v. France) and Nuclear Tests (New Zealand v. France) cases, representing Australia and New Zealand jointly.

Sir Garfield Barwick (left) in a meeting with President John F Kennedy, 17 October1963.

Tax avoidance and evasion
The Barwick court decided several infamous cases on tax avoidance and tax evasion, almost always deciding against the taxation office. Led by Barwick himself in most judgments, the court distinguished between avoidance (legitimately minimising one's tax obligations) and evasion (illegally evading obligations). The decisions effectively nullified the anti-avoidance legislation and led to the proliferation of avoidance schemes in the 1970s, a result which drew much criticism upon the court.

The dismissal
During the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, Sir Garfield Barwick controversially advised Governor-General Sir John Kerr on the constitutional legality of dismissing a prime minister who declined to advise an election when unable to obtain passage of supply. This was significant, because Barwick and Gough Whitlam, whose government Kerr dismissed, had a history of antipathy dating from the mid-1950s. Further, Whitlam had refused Kerr's request for permission to consult Barwick, or to act on any advice except his own.

Batavia

Batavia was a ship of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). It was built in Amsterdam in 1628, and armed with 24 cast-iron cannons and a number of bronze guns. Batavia was shipwrecked on her maiden voyage, and was made famous by the subsequent mutiny and massacre that took place among the survivors. Of the original 341 people on board the Batavia, only 68 made it to the port of Batavia.

Murders, Rescue and Aftermath

The hangings on Long Island as illustrated in the Lucas de Vries 1649 edition of Ongeluckige Voyagie.

A twentieth-century replica of the Batavia and can be visited in Lelystad, Netherlands.

The Batavia carried a considerable amount of treasure.

Each ship in the Batavia class carried an estimated 250,000 guilders each in twelve wooden chests containing about 8000 silver coins each. The Batavia’s treasure also included special items being carried by Pelsaert for sale to the Mogul Court in India where he had intended to travel on to. There were four jewel bags, stated to be worth about 60,000 guilders, and an early-fourth-century Roman cameo, as well as numerous other items either now displayed in Fremantle and Geraldton, or recovered by Pelsaert in 1629.

The Gemma Constantina cameo, circa CE 312, forming part of the Batavia Treasure, recovered in 1629.

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