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(A combination of Lets Chat and Today in memory of Gerry, Geomac and Seth.) 

Please keep it general so all can be included not about subjects that can aggravate like Politics or Religion. 

Today's Date Sunday 7th May 2017 

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I love the story of Charles 1, his arrogance knew no bounds.

When he demanding money from Parliament for a war with Spain and they refused, he spat the dummy and sacked them all.  Eleven years later when he needed more money for another war, he called them back, but again they refused him, so he dissolved Parliament again.    This period in British history was known as the ‘Short Parliament.’

Without enough money, he lost the war with the Scots and owed them more money than he had, so once again, he had to reassemble Parliament.  By this time, the members were fed up with his antics and declared that the king could never again shut them down and Charles had no choice but to agree.  This Parliament is known as the ‘Long Parliament.’

 The Parliament and the King then began to quarrel about who was in control of the army. Each side ended up with their own – the King’s army and Parliament’s army.  When the king realised he had lost the war, he went to the Scots for protection but they handed him over to Parliament.

He wouldn't have a bar of a constitutional monarchy so Parliament voted to put him on trial, he was found guilty and beheaded in January 1649.  What was left of the ‘Long Parliament’ became known as the ‘Rump Parliament.’  They took complete power in England and there was no new king until 1660.

Who said history was boring?

Amazing sense of entitlement. Thanks Toot.

21 January

On this day:

1749 – The Teatro Filarmonico in Verona is destroyed by fire. It is rebuilt in 1754.
1793 – The last King of France, Louis XVI, is executed by guillotine.
1887 – Brisbane receives record rainfall, 465 millimetres (18.3 inches) in 24 hours, a record for any Australian capital city.
1904 – Henry Northcote, 1st Baron Northcote is appointed the third Governor General of Australia.
1911 – The first Monte Carlo Rally takes place.
1931 – Isaac Isaacs becomes the first Australian born Governor-General of Australia.
1941 – World War II: Capture of Tobruk: Australian and British forces attack Tobruk, Libya.
1954 – The first nuclear-powered submarine, the USS Nautilus, is launched.

Teatro Filarmonico

The Teatro Filarmonico is the main opera theatre in Verona, Italy and is one of the leading Opera Houses in Europe. The Teatro Filarmonico is owned by the Accademia Filarmonica di Verona. Verona needed an opera house, so the Accademia Filarmonica di Verona decided in the early 18th century to build a large and worthy theatre. Work began in 1716 and lasted 13 years. The inauguration was on the evening of January 6, 1732, with La Fida Ninfa by Antonio Vivaldi.

On 21 January 1749, fire destroyed in the theatre. Rebuilt, the theatre was re-dedicated in 1754 with the opera Lucio Vero by Neapolitan composer Davide Perez. The opera had a limited success. In the late 18th century, during the French invasion by Napolean, a long series of celebrations were held in the theatre, such as the Cantata per la Santa Alleanza ("Cantata for the Holy Alliance") of Gioachino Rossini. The theatre hosted international singers featuring the most famous works of Italian and foreign composers.

On the night of 23 February 1945, the theatre collapsed under the force of Anglo-American bombing. The Academy Philharmonic announced that it would try to rebuild the theatre exactly as it had been before. Construction took a long time and the theatre was finally inaugurated again in 1975, with the opera Falstaff by Antonio Salieri. Today the theatre hosts opera, ballet and concert seasons. The theatre’s repertoire is one of the most famous in the country for both Italian operas and international compositions.

Louis XVI of France

Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793), born Louis-Auguste, was the last King of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. In 1765, at the death of his father, Louis, son and heir apparent of Louis XV, Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin of France. Upon his grandfather's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title "King of France and Navarre", which he used until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of "King of the French" until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792.

Execution of Louis XVI in the Place de la Révolution, 21 January 1793. The empty pedestal in front of him had supported an equestrian statue of his grandfather, Louis XV. When the monarchy was abolished on 11 August 1792, the statue was torn down and sent to be melted.

In a context of civil and international war, Louis XVI was suspended and arrested at the time of the insurrection of 10 August 1792; one month later, the constitutional monarchy was abolished and the First French Republic was proclaimed on 21 September 1792. He was tried by the National Convention (self-instituted as a tribunal for the occasion), found guilty of high treason, and executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793.

Louis XVI was the only King of France ever to be executed, and his death brought an end to more than a thousand years of continuous French monarchy.

Brisbane records the Australian city record for rainfall

In January 1887, a tropical cyclone moved along the east coast of Fraser Island down to the Sunshine Coast and then into Brisbane City. There it remained stationary driving very heavy rainfall into the Southeast Queensland area and into the southern Border areas of New South Wales. The rainfall was exceptionally heavy and caused rapid flooding. Brisbane received a record 24 hour rainfall total of 465mm which still stands as a record for any city in Australia today.

Logan River Bridge. State Library of Queensland.

There was fearful loss of life and property on the Logan River with the destruction of the railway
bridge. At Logan a family of five were drowned, two men were drowned, a man and his son were
drowned crossing a creek and 60 to 70 families were washed out of their homes. The waters were
higher by 12 feet than the flood of 1864.

Flooded Brisbane River from North Quay towards West End Brewery, Brisbane. State Library of Queensland.

Flooding in the Brisbane river was severe. All the wharfs were under water, some by 10 feet. A sailor named James Challón, one of the crew of the barque Afton, was drowned when the boat capsized. A man named Richard Thompson was drowned in Merrivale Street, South Brisbane. The Sandgate railway was partly submerged, and the Bowen Bridge and Breakfast Creek Bridge were covered. The steamer Barrabool ran aground in Brisbane River and two sailors drowned.

At the Norman Creek Thompson Estate many houses were lifted from the stumps on which they were built and carried away by the flooded Norman Creek. One house floated away with the family in it, and the occupants were rescued with great difficulty. At Newstead, most of the houses were underwater. The flood rose so rapidly that people could not leave their houses.

Floodwaters rise in the heart of Ipswich January 1887. State Library of Queensland.

In Warwick the flood was the highest and most disastrous the then present generation had witnessed, The River rose 80 feet in a few hours. Over four feet of water was recorded in business places and the Government offices. Only one person was drowned, a Miss Reeve, of Emu Vale, who was climbing along a wire fence and was washed off. Her two brothers had a narrow escape. The river rose 80 feet in a few hours. In the Pine River agricultural district the land was completely swept clean and the damage to crops was enormous. The Pine Bridge approaches were washed away.

Floodwaters at the Bulimba ferry terminal, Brisbane, in January 1887. State Library of Queensland.

Severe flooding occurred in the Bundaberg, Maryborough and Gympie areas. Northern New South Wales also suffered badly where the most disastrous flood on record in the upper Richmond occurred in Casino. Houses were inundated and there were several dramatic rescues, one lasting 7 hours. The whole of South Grafton was completely submerged, except the high knoll known as Wilson's Hill. In North Grafton there were only three houses out of water.

Henry Northcote, 1st Baron Northcote

Henry Stafford Northcote, 1st Baron Northcote GCMG GCIE CB PC (1846–1911) was a British Conservative politician who served as the third Governor-General of Australia, in office from 21 January 1904 to 9 September 1908.

Lord Northcote. Lord Northcote, left, during a visit to South Australia.

Northcote was still Governor of Bombay when the Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, offered him the post of Governor-General of Australia in 1903. The first two Governors-General, Lord Hopetoun and Lord Tennyson, had served shortened terms and had had difficult relations with Australian ministers.

Both the British and Australian governments wanted stability and continuity, and Northcote was appointed for a five-year term. His lifelong experience in politics and his time in Bombay made him a suitable appointment. He was neither as imperious as Hopetoun nor as stuffy as Tennyson, and he made a good impression with both politicians and the public.

Northcote caricatured by Spy for Vanity Fair, 1904. The outgoing Governor-General and the new one, Henry Stafford Northcote and William Humble Ward, 1908.

This was just as well, because Northcote was the first Australian Governor-General to have to deal with political instability. In doing this, he sought the advice of the Chief Justice of the newly created High Court of Australia, Sir Samuel Griffith. In April 1904 the Prime Minister, Alfred Deakin, resigned, and was succeeded in quick succession by the Labor leader Chris Watson, the Free Trade leader George Reid and then Deakin again. Both Watson and Reid asked Northcote to dissolve Parliament before their resignations, and in both cases he refused.

At this time no-one doubted that the Governor-General had a discretion in these cases. It is a measure of Northcote's standing that all these leaders respected his decisions.

Monte Carlo Rally

The Monte Carlo Rally or Rallye Monte Carlo is a rallying event organised each year by the Automobile Club de Monaco which also organises the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix and the Rallye Monte-Carlo Historique. The rally now takes place along the French Riviera in the Principality of Monaco and southeast France.

Previously, competitors would set off from all four corners of Europe and ‘rally’, in other words, meet, in Monaco to celebrate the end of a unique event. From its inception it was an important means of demonstrating improvements and innovations to automobiles.

Henri Rougier and the victorious 25Hp Turcat-Méry before the inaugural Monte Carlo rally, 1911.

In 1909 the Automobile Club de Monaco started planning a car rally at the behest of Albert I, Prince of Monaco. The Monte Carlo Rally was to start at points all over Europe and converge on Monte Carlo. In January 1911 23 cars set out from 11 different locations and Henri Rougier was among the nine who left Paris to cover a 1,020 kilometres route. The event was won by Rougier in a Turcat-Méry 25 Hp.

The rally comprised both driving and then somewhat arbitrary judging based on the elegance of the car, passenger comfort and the condition in which it arrived in the principality.

Isaac Isaacs

Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs GCB, GCMG, PC, KC (1855–1948) was an Australian lawyer, politician, and judge who served as the ninth Governor-General of Australia, in office from 21 January 1931 to 23 January 1936. He had previously served on the High Court of Australia from 1906 to 1931, including as Chief Justice from 1930.

Isaacs as a High Court judge, as Governor-General.

Isaacs was born in Melbourne and grew up in Yackandandah and Beechworth in country Victoria. He began working as a schoolteacher at the age of 15, and later moved to Melbourne to work as a clerk and studied law part-time at the University of Melbourne. Isaacs was admitted to the bar in 1880, and soon became one of Melbourne's best-known barristers.

Isaacs entered the new federal parliament at the 1901 election, representing the Protectionist Party. He became Attorney-General of Australia in 1905, under Alfred Deakin, but the following year left politics in order to become an associate justice of the High Court.

Governor General Sir Isaac Isaacs receiving VIPs at Government House Yarralumla.

In 1930, Prime Minister James Scullin appointed Isaacs as Chief Justice, in succession to Sir Adrian Knox. Later that year, Scullin nominated Isaacs as his preferred choice for governor-general. The selection of an Australian, rather than the usual British aristocrat, was unprecedented and highly controversial.

King George V was opposed to the idea but eventually consented, and Isaacs took office on 21 January 1931 as the first Australian-born holder of the office. He was the first governor-general to live full-time at Yarralumla, and throughout his five-year term was popular among the public for his frugality during the Depression.

Capture of Tobruk

On the morning of 5 January 1941, as soon as the 63rd Infantry Division Cirene garrisoning Bardia, surrendered, the 7th Armoured Brigade set off for El Adem, now Tobruk Airport, and next day began to cut off the port. The Australian 19th Brigade group reached the eastern defences of Tobruk on 7 January and the 16th Brigade group took over on the west side. The British 4th Armoured Brigade moved to the west part of the perimeter, the Support Group blocked the western exits and the British 7th Armoured Brigade screened the force from interference from the west, although little resistance had been met during the moves from Bardia.

Men of the Australian 2nd/11th Battalion, 6th Division pictured during the Battle of Tobruk, 22 January 1941.

The attack was to be made against the perimeter east of the El Adem road, where a battalion of the 16th Australian Brigade was to capture the defences in a night attack, through which the rest of the brigade and the 7th RTR would pass and fan out east and west, then advance towards the harbour. The Australian 17th Brigade and the Support Group were to stage diversions either side of the attack and Italian artillery positions were to be located for counter-battery fire.

Sandstorms blew up and grounded the Desert Air Force for much of the time but raids were carried out on Tobruk and the Italian bomber bases at Benina and Berka. On the night of 20/21 January, several ships and gunboats bombarded the harbour, destroyers waited further out to attack the Italian cruiser San Giorgio, if the crew tried to escape and then Wellington bombers flew over Tobruk, to drown the sound of the assembly for the attack.

British forces maintaining pressure on Tobruk.

The 2/3rd Australian Battalion attacked at 5.40 am on 21 January, covered by artillery, through an area where engineers had disabled booby traps and then began to lift mines, to make paths through the wire and over the anti-tank ditch. After an hour, the 16th Australian Brigade and 18 infantry tanks broke through against patchy resistance. As the 16th Australian Brigade fanned out at 8.40 am, the 19th Australian Brigade advanced north, behind an artillery barrage and counter-battery fire on the Italian artillery. The 2/8th Australian Battalion was held up at the Bardia–El Adem crossroads by a force of dug-in tanks and machine-gun nests but at 2.00 pm the Australians attacked again and broke through on the right. On the left the Australians were counter-attacked by seven tanks and infantry behind an artillery barrage, which was driven off by the Australians.

Captured Italian tanks pressed into Australian service, 23 Jan 1941. AWM.

Half of the Tobruk area had been captured by nightfall and the Italians began demolitions at the harbour. The San Giorgio, having been ordered to stay and help with the defence until the end, fired on the advancing Australian troops up to the time when the naval base fell, then was blown up by her crew to avoid capture. A general advance was ordered for the next morning and at dawn, the commander of the Sirte Division, Major-General Della Mura surrendered with several thousand of his troops and the defence collapsed. By 3.45 pm resistance had ceased and 20,000 prisoners, 208 guns and 87 tanks were captured.

USS Nautilus (SSN-571)

USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the world's first operational nuclear-powered submarine and was launched on 21 January 1954. The vessel was the first submarine to complete a submerged transit of the North Pole on 3rd August 1958.

The launch of USS Nautilus on 21 January 1954.

Sharing names with Captain Nemo's fictional submarine in Jules Verne's classic 1870 science fiction novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, and named after another USS Nautilus (SS-168) that served with distinction in World War II, the new atomic powered Nautilus was authorised in 1951, with laying down for construction in 1952 and launched on 21 January 1954, attended by First Lady Mamie Eisenhower, wife of 34th President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and commissioned the following September into the United States Navy. Final construction was completed in 1955.

USS Nautilus in New York.

Because her nuclear propulsion allowed her to remain submerged far longer than the then current diesel-electric submarines previously, she broke many records in her first years of operation, and traveled to locations previously beyond the limits of submarines. In operation, she revealed a number of limitations in her design and construction. This information was used to improve subsequent submarines.

The retired USS Nautilus heads home on 8 May 2002, after preservation by the Electric Boat Division.

Nautilus was decommissioned in 1980 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1982. The submarine has been preserved as a museum ship at the Submarine Force Library and Museum in Groton, Connecticut, where the vessel receives around 250,000 visitors per year.

For years Esperance on Western Australia's south coast has laid claim to being the home of the world's best beaches.

Now finally, thanks to the quest for that perfect social media photograph, the world has uncovered Australia's best kept secret.

"It's just like nothing I've seen before," photographer and tourism operator Jaimen Hudson said of the crowds flocking to the remote town 10 hours drive from Perth.



Sent from my iPhon

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