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AnonymousMember8 February 2018 at 12:44 pm
More on the Byzantine Empire.
The term “Byzantine” derives from Byzantium, an ancient Greek colony founded by a man named Byzas. In 330 AD, Roman Emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium as the site of a “New Rome”. It was renamed Constantinople and dedicated on 11 May 330 AD. For over a thousand years Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe and a major lynchpin of trade.
Though the western half of the Roman Empire crumbled and fell in 476 AD, the eastern half, the “Byzantine Empire” survived for 1,000 more years, spawning a rich tradition of art, literature and learning and serving as a military buffer between Europe and Asia. The Byzantine Empire finally fell in 1453, after an Ottoman army stormed Constantinople.
There’s a big slouch going on right now between Greece and neighbouring Macedonia over the former Yugoslav republic’s official name. Last weekend the Greeks held a massive rally in Athens to protest.
The name dispute broke out after Macedonia gained independence from Yugoslavia in 1991. The country is recognised by international institutions as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, even though about 130 countries refer to it simply as Macedonia. Greece argues use of the name implies territorial claims on its own province of Macedonia, home of one of the most famous ancient Greeks, Alexander the Great. Officials in Skopje counter that their country has been known as Macedonia for a long time.
8 February 2018 at 1:29 pm
Yes I get it, Greece insists Maedonia is theirs.
On Sunday, more than 140,000 Greeks marched to parliament in Athens during a flag-waving “Macedonia is Greece” rally, chanting that the name “is in our soul.”
“Macedonia was, is and will forever be Greek,” declared one of the speakers, 92-year-old Mikis Theodorakis, the country’s greatest living composer, known for his score to “Zorba the Greek.”
8 February 2018 at 1:34 pm
So confusing when Yugoslavia was split up.
After the Allied victory in World War II, Yugoslavia was set up as a federation of six republics, with borders drawn along ethnic and historical lines: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. In addition, two autonomous provinces were established within Serbia: Vojvodina and Kosovo.
9 February 2018 at 9:21 am
Charlie Chaplin in 1916, aged 27
AnonymousMember9 February 2018 at 11:45 am
Great photo thanks Toot. So much packed in at such a young age and … his career lasted 77 years. Amazing.
Chaplin’s childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship. As his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine. When he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Chaplin began performing at an early age, touring music halls and later working as a stage actor and comedian. At 19, he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, which took him to America. Chaplin was scouted for the film industry and began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. By 1918, he was one of the best-known figures in the world.
9 February 2018 at 10:17 am
You don’t see this very often, so unusual for ABC to get it wrong.
ABC apology to Kevin Rudd
Updated about 11 hours ago
On January 31, 2018, ABC News reported on a document prepared in April 2009 for the Strategic Priorities and Budget Committee (SPBC) warning of critical risks in the roll-out of the Energy Efficient Homes Package.
In reporting on that document, the ABC did not intend to suggest that Mr Rudd recklessly ignored critical risks of the home insulation scheme before the deaths of four young installers, or that he lied to the royal commission that examined those deaths.
The ABC accepts that, as found by the royal commission, Mr Rudd was not warned of, and was not aware of critical safety risks at the time.
The royal commission made no adverse findings against Mr Rudd and there is no suggestion that Mr Rudd lied to the commission.
The ABC unreservedly apologises to Mr Rudd for any harm or embarrassment caused.
9 February 2018 at 10:33 am
Makes me wonder about the outcome of Geoffrey Rush and his stoush with the Telegraph currently in the court.
AnonymousMember9 February 2018 at 11:46 am
It is unusual. Haven’t heard any more about Geoffrey Rush.
AnonymousMember9 February 2018 at 11:27 am
On this day:
1849 – The new Roman Republic is declared.
1870 – US president Ulysses S. Grant signs a joint resolution of Congress establishing the U.S. Weather Bureau.
1895 – William G. Morgan creates a game called Mintonette, which soon comes to be referred to as volleyball.
1897 – Charles Kingsford Smith, Australian captain and pilot is born.
1941 – WWII: The Cathedral of San Lorenzo in Genoa, Italy is struck by a bomb which fails to detonate.
1964 – The Beatles make their first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, performing before a “record-busting” audience of 73 million viewers across the USA.
1889 – Peter Lalor, the leader of the Eureka Stockade rebellion, dies aged 62.
1923 – Stanley Bruce becomes Prime Minister of Australia.
The new Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was a short-lived state declared on 9 February 1849, when the government of Papal States was temporarily replaced by a republican government due to Pope Pius IX’s flight to Gaeta. The republic was led by Carlo Armellini, Giuseppe Mazzini, and Aurelio Saffi. Together they formed a triumvirate, a reflection of a form of government seen in the ancient Roman Republic.
Pope Pius IX.
On November 15, 1848, Pellegrino Rossi, the Minister of Justice of the Papal government, was assassinated. The following day, the liberals of Rome filled the streets, where various groups demanded a democratic government, social reforms and a declaration of war against the Empire of Austria. On the night of November 24, Pope Pius IX left Rome disguised as an ordinary priest, and went out of the state to Gaeta, a fortress in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
Map of the Papal States until 1870.
Without a local government in Rome for the first time in history, popular assemblies gathered. A High Council established by the Pope decided to schedule direct and universal elections on the following 21 January 1849. In each and every part of the Papal States more than 50% of the potential voters went to the polls. The voters were not asked to express themselves on the parties but to vote for individuals. The Constitutional Assembly convened on February 8 and proclaimed the Roman Republic after midnight on 9 February 1849.
Proclamation of the Roman Republic in 1849, in Piazza del Popolo.
One of the major innovations the Republic hoped to achieve was enshrined in its constitution: all religions could be practiced freely and the pope was guaranteed the right to govern the Catholic Church. These religious freedoms were quite different from the situation under the preceding government, which allowed only Catholicism and Judaism to be practiced by citizens. The Constitution of the Roman Republic was the first in the world to abolish capital punishment in its constitutional law.
The new republic soon faced a military threat, at risk of attack by Austrian forces in Piedmont. But the Roman Republic would fall to another, unexpected enemy. In France, newly elected President Louis Napoleon was under pressure from French Catholics and decided to send troops to restore the Pope.
The French Army entered Rome on 3 July 1849 and reestablished the Holy See’s temporal power bringing the short-lived Roman Republic to an end.
National Weather Service
The National Weather Service was known as the United States Weather Bureau from its formation on 9 February 1870 until it adopted its current name in 1970.
In 1870, the Weather Bureau was established through a joint resolution of Congress signed by President Ulysses S. Grant with a mission to “provide for taking meteorological observations at the military stations in the interior of the continent and at other points in the States and Territories…and for giving notice on the northern Great Lakes and on the seacoast by magnetic telegraph and marine signals, of the approach and force of storms.”
The agency was placed under the Secretary of War as Congress felt “military discipline would probably secure the greatest promptness, regularity, and accuracy in the required observations.” Within the Department of War, it was assigned to the U.S. Army Signal Service.
Today the National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States federal government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organisations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information.
It is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) branch of the Department of Commerce, and is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland located just outside Washington, D.C.
William G. Morgan
William George Morgan (1870–1942) was the inventor of volleyball, originally called “Mintonette”, a name derived from the game of badminton which he later agreed to change to “Volleyball” to better reflect the nature of the sport.
Morgan met James Naismith, the inventor of basketball, while he was studying at Springfield College in 1892. Like Naismith, Morgan pursued a career in Physical Education at the YMCA. Influenced by Naismith and basketball, in 1895, in Holyoke, Massachusetts, Morgan invented “Mintonette” a less vigorous team sport more suitable for older members of the YMCA but one that still required athletic skill. He wanted to create a game which everyone could play, no matter their age or physical ability.
1892 Springfield College Football Team. James Naismith and William Morgan are in the middle row, Naismith in the centre holding the football and Morgan second from the right. Springfield College, Babson Library.
Morgan decided that the game would involve a six-foot, six-inch net in the middle dividing the 2 separate playing areas, and that it would be played on a 30 × 60 ft. court, so that it could be played in gyms anywhere across the nation as well as outside. After creating some ground rules, William Morgan had to experiment with his game.
First, he had to decide which ball to use. A basketball was too heavy while the basketball bladder was too light. After testing all of the balls he had available, he had come to the conclusion that his best option was to ask A.G. Spalding & Bros. to make him a ball. After refining his ideas, he was asked to demonstrate his sport at the school’s new stadium.
Old women’s volleyball photo. Beach volleyball players in Hawaii, circa 1915.
On 9 February 1895, William Morgan presented his new sport to the world. When Morgan was explaining the game before the demonstration, he named a few key guidelines in the game of “Mintonette” in addition to the objective of the game which was to keep the ball in action as it goes from one side of the high net to the other.
One of the conference delegates, Professor Alfred T. Halsted, loved the game of Mintonette, but he felt like something was just not right. Professor Halsted suggested that the name of the game should be Volleyball, since the main point of the game was to “volley” the ball to a player or over the net. Morgan agreed.
Volleyball has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since 1964.
Charles Kingsford Smith
Sir Charles Edward Kingsford Smith MC, AFC (9 February 1897 – 8 November 1935), often called by his nickname Smithy, was an early Australian aviator. In 1928, he earned global fame when he made the first trans-Pacific flight from the United States to Australia. He also made the first non-stop crossing of the Australian mainland, the first flights between Australia and New Zealand, and the first eastward Pacific crossing from Australia to the United States. He also made a flight from Australia to London, setting a new record of 10.5 days.
In 1915, Kingsford Smith enlisted for duty in the 1st AIF Australian Army and served at Gallipoli. Initially, he performed duty as a motorcycle despatch rider, before transferring to the Royal Flying Corps, earning his pilot’s wings in 1917. In August 1917, while serving with No. 23 Squadron, Kingsford Smith was shot down and received injuries which required amputation of a large part of his left foot. He was awarded the Military Cross for his gallantry in battle.
On being demobilised in England, in early 1919, he joined Tasmanian Cyril Maddocks, to form Kingsford Smith, Maddocks Aeros Ltd, flying a joy-riding service mainly in the North of England, during the summer of 1919. Later Kingsford Smith worked as a barnstormer in the United States before returning to Australia in 1921. He did the same in Australia and also flew airmail services, and began to plan his record-breaking flight across the Pacific.
Charles Kingsford-Smith and Charles Ulm, on landing after the first trans-Pacific flight, Mascot, 10 June 1928.
At 8.54 am on 31 May 1928, Kingsford Smith and his 4-man crew left Oakland, California, to attempt the first trans-Pacific flight to Australia. The flight was in three stages: Oakland to Hawaii, Hawaii to Suva in Fiji, Fiji to Brisbane. The total flight distance was approximately 11,566 kilometres. Kingsford Smith was met by a huge crowd of 26,000 at Eagle Farm Airport, and was welcomed as a hero. Australian aviator Charles Ulm was the relief pilot. The other crewmen were two Americans, James Warner, the radio operator, and Captain Harry Lyon, the navigator and engineer.
The Southern Cross at an RAAF base near Canberra in 1943.
After making the first non-stop flight across Australia from Point Cook near Melbourne to Perth, in Western Australia in August 1928, Kingsford Smith and Charles Ulm registered themselves as Australian National Airways. They then decided to attempt the Tasman crossing to New Zealand not only because it had never yet been done, but also in the hope the Australian Government would grant Australian National Airways a subsidised contract to carry scheduled mail regularly.
The welcome at Wigram base, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Kingsford Smith left Richmond in the evening of 10 September, planning to fly overnight to a daylight landing after a flight of about 14 hours. After a stormy flight there was a tremendous welcome in Christchurch, where the Southern Cross landed at 0922 after a flight of 14 hours and 25 minutes. About 30,000 people made their way to the Royal New Zealand Air Force base at Wigram, including many students from state schools, who were given the day off, and public servants, who were granted leave until 11 am. The event was also broadcast live on radio.
Kingsford Smith at Australian National Airways in 1933.
Sir Charles Kingsford Smith and co-pilot John Thompson “Tommy” Pethybridge were flying the Lady Southern Cross overnight from Allahabad, India, to Singapore, as part of their attempt to break the England-Australia speed record held by C. W. A. Scott and Tom Campbell Black, when they disappeared over the Andaman Sea in the early hours of 8 November 1935.
Despite a search for 74 hours over Bay of Bengal by test pilot Eric Stanley Greenwood OBE their bodies were never recovered.
Genoa Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in the Italian city of Genoa. It is dedicated to Saint Lawrence, and is the seat of the Archbishop of Genoa. The cathedral was consecrated by Pope Gelasius II in 1118 and was built between the twelfth century and the fourteenth century as fundamentally a medieval building, with some later additions. Secondary naves and side covers are of Romanesque style and the main facade is Gothic from the early thirteenth century, while capitals and columns with interior corridors date from the early fourteenth century. The bell tower and dome were built in the sixteenth century.
The cathedral was founded probably in the 5th or 6th century AD, devoted to Saint Sirus, bishop of Genoa. Excavations under the pavement and in the area in front of today’s west front have brought to light walls and pavements of Roman age as well as pre-Christian sarcophagi, suggesting the existence of a burial ground in the site.
The cathedral had a fortunate escape on 9 February 1941, when the city was being shelled as part of Operation Grog. Because of a crew error, the British battleship HMS Malaya fired a 381 mm armour-piercing shell into the south-eastern corner of the nave. The relatively soft material failed to detonate the fuse and the shell is still there.
The inscription, which gives thanks for the cathedral’s escape reads, “This bomb, launched by the British Navy, though breaking through the walls of this great cathedral, fell here unexploded on February 9, 1941. In perpetual gratitude, Genoa, the City of Mary, desired to engrave in stone, the memory of such grace.”
The Beatles in the United States
The Beatles’ rise to prominence in the United States in February 1964 was a significant development in the history of the band’s commercial success. In addition to establishing the Beatles’ international stature, it changed attitudes to popular music in the United States, whose own Memphis-driven musical evolution had made it a global trend-setter.
The Beatles on the Ed Sullivan Show, 9th February 1964.
The Beatles’ first visit to the United States came at a time of great popularity in Britain. The band’s UK commercial breakthrough, in late 1962, had been followed by a year of successful concerts and tours. The start of the Beatles’ popularity in the United States, in early 1964, was marked by intense demand for the single “I Want to Hold Your Hand”, which sold one-and-a-half million copies in under three weeks, and the band’s arrival the following month.
The visit, advertised across the United States on five million posters, was a defining moment in the Beatles’ history, and the starting-point of the musical “British Invasion” in the US.
On 9 February 1964, the Beatles made their first live US television appearance. 73 million viewers, about two-fifths of the total American population, watched the group perform on The Ed Sullivan Show at 8.00 pm. According to the Nielsen ratings audience measurement system, the show had the largest number of viewers that had ever been recorded for a US television program at that time.
Video: The Beatles on the Ed Sullivan Show, performing “I Want To Hold Your Hand”.
Peter Fintan Lalor (5 February 1827 – 9 February 1889) was an Irish-Australian rebel and, later, politician who rose to fame for his leading role in the Eureka Rebellion, an event controversially identified with the “birth of democracy” in Australia. He is famous for being the only outlaw to make it to parliament.
Lalor was educated at Carlow College and then trained as a civil engineer at Trinity College, Dublin. Three of the Lalor brothers migrated to America and fought on both sides of the Civil War. However, Peter and his brother Richard decided to go to Australia, arriving in Victoria in October 1852. Peter Lalor began mining in the Ovens Valley, then moved to the Eureka Lead at Ballarat.
Swearing allegiance to the ‘Southern Cross’, 1854. Watercolour, pen and ink on paper by Charles A. Doudiet. Art Gallery of Ballarat.
The agitation against the goldfields licences, which were 30 shillings each, began at Bendigo in 1853, and was quickly taken up at Ballarat, and a Reform League was formed amongst the diggers on the various goldfields for the redress of grievances. After an attack on Bentley’s hotel in Ballarat where an angry mob stormed the hotel and set fire to it, a mass meeting was held on Bakery Hill on 11 November 1854, to demand the release of the alleged perpetrators.
It also passed resolutions affirming the right of the people to full representation, manhood suffrage, the abolition of the property qualification for members, payment of members, short Parliaments, and the abolition of the Gold Commission and the diggers’ licenses. On 29 November another meeting of about 12,000 men was held at Ballarat. This is said to be the first public meeting that Mr. Lalor addressed.
Pistol used by Peter Lalor at the Eureka Stockade, 3 December 1854. State Library of Victoria Collection.
Lalor led the miners’ opposition against the incompetent and often brutal administration of the goldfields, and was elected to lead the men in the armed uprising after the meeting on Bakery Hill. The diggers formed a barricade, where they were attacked by troops and police on 3 December. Lalor was seriously wounded in the left arm, resulting in its amputation.
A warrant for Lalor’s arrest on charges of sedition was initially sought, but he was taken from Ballarat and hidden by his supporters in the Young Queen Hotel at South Geelong. The warrant was withdrawn in June 1855 after juries had found 13 other ringleaders not guilty of sedition.
Reward Poster. Ballarat Heritage Services.
Due to the political changes caused by the Eureka Stockade, Lalor was elected to the Victorian Legislative Council in November 1855 as the member of Ballarat and remained in this role until March 1856. In November 1856, Lalor was elected unopposed to the Legislative Assembly seat of North Grenville (Ballarat West). Lalor held North Grenville until August 1859, but never represented Ballarat again. He held various other seats in Victoria until his death in February 1889.
The Hon. Peter Lalor MLA, Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Victoria, 1880–1887.
Australian historian Weston Bate wrote that the role of landowner and company director seemed to suit him more than that of rebel, and that Peter Lalor “disgraced himself in democratic eyes” by trying to use Chinese as strike-breakers at the Clunes mine, of which he was a director. Some argue that he was ruthless in using low paid Chinese workers to get rid of Australians seeking better and safer working conditions.
In parliament he supported a repressive land Bill in 1857 which favoured the rich. There were 17,745 Ballarat signatures to a petition against Lalor’s land Bill. Many were puzzled and hurt that the folk hero should prove to be a better fighter for money and political position than for the people’s rights.
The inconsistencies of his political stance can perhaps best be explained by the principles he consistently upheld: a well-ordered society based on a broad and prosperous land-holding class, governed by free men in the liberal institutions embodied in British constitutional procedures.
Peter Lalor died on Saturday, 9 February 1889 at age 62 at his son’s home in Richmond and was buried at the Melbourne General Cemetery.
Stanley Melbourne Bruce, 1st Viscount Bruce of Melbourne, CH, MC, PC, FRS (1883–1967) was the eighth Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 9 February 1923 to 22 October 1929. He made wide-ranging reforms and mounted a comprehensive nation-building program in government, but his controversial handling of industrial relations led to a dramatic defeat at the polls in 1929.
Bruce later pursued a long and influential diplomatic career as High Commissioner to the United Kingdom from 1933 to 1945 and chairman of the Food and Agriculture Organisation from 1946 to 1951.
Bruce in the 1910s. Captain Bruce of the Royal Fusiliers during World War I.
Born into a wealthy Melbourne family, Bruce studied at the University of Cambridge and spent his early life tending to the importing and exporting business of his late father. He served on the front lines of the Gallipoli Campaign in World War I and returned to Australia wounded in 1917, becoming a spokesperson for government recruitment efforts.
Bruce gained the attention of the Nationalist Party and Prime Minister Billy Hughes, who encouraged a political career. He was elected to parliament in 1918, becoming treasurer in 1921 and then prime minister on 9 February 1923, at the head of a coalition with the Country Party.
Billy Hughes, Herbert Pratten and Stanley Bruce.
In office Bruce pursued an energetic and diverse agenda. He comprehensively overhauled federal government administration and oversaw its transfer to the new capital city of Canberra. He implemented various reforms to the Australian federal system to strengthen the role of the Commonwealth, and helped develop the forerunners of the Australian Federal Police and the CSIRO. Bruce’s “men, money and markets” scheme was an ambitious attempt to rapidly expand Australia’s population and economic potential through massive government investment and closer ties with Great Britain and the rest of the British Empire.
Bruce’s newly assembled ministry, 1923. Poster promoting migration to Australia as part of the “men, money and markets” scheme, 1928.
However, his endeavours to overhaul Australia’s industrial relations system brought his government into frequent conflict with the labour movement, and his radical proposal to abolish Commonwealth arbitration in 1929 prompted members of his own party to cross the floor to defeat the government. In the resounding loss at the subsequent election the prime minister lost his own seat, an event unprecedented in Australia and one that would not occur again until 2007.
Pope Pius XII with chairman Bruce and members of the World Food Council in Rome, 1950.
Although he returned to parliament in 1931, Bruce’s service in the Lyons Government was brief. Instead he pursued an international career, accepting appointment as High Commissioner to the United Kingdom in 1933. He emerged as a tireless advocate for international cooperation on economic and social problems, especially those facing the developing world. Particularly passionate on improving global nutrition, Bruce was one of the key figures in the establishment of the Food and Agriculture Organisation, serving as the first chairman of its governing council.
He was the first Australian to sit in the House of Lords, as well as the first Chancellor of the Australian National University.
8 February 2018 at 10:39 am
I know nothing about the Byzantines but trying to learn about them, I found this which is easier to understand (and hope it’s correct)
The Byzantine Empire survived into the Middle Ages. Its capital was Constantinople, which today is in Turkey and is now called Istanbul.
Long after its “end,” Byzantine culture and civilization continued to exercise an influence on countries that practiced its Orthodox religion, including Russia, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece, among others.
They spoke medieval Greek and were the main inhabitants of lands including the Greek islands, Cyprus, and portions of the southern Balkans.
8 February 2018 at 10:50 am
Missed seeing Bothwell in Tassie, we missed the turnoff lol, looks interesting though. Saw on tv last night, prices of houses in Hobart are through the roof and there’s a real shortage of places to rent.
8 February 2018 at 10:54 am
Good on the Sydney boys for sorting out the Poms on the cricket ground and good to know that Banjo was among them. How funny they cancelled further matches and took their bat home to England.
8 February 2018 at 11:09 am
I know a 92 year old who told me the story of when she was at school, butter was rationed and living on a farm, she asked the teacher if she could swap some home-made butter for some fuel so her father could start the tractor.
Fabulous pic of the Melbourne dust storm, we had one in Sydney not long ago.
AnonymousMember8 February 2018 at 12:06 pm
Thanks Toot for all the extras.
🙂 The cricket riot amused me. Big deal at the time obviously.
Reading about the Stasi gave me the horrors. Their surveillance and control of the people was staggering as was the number of overseas anti-west organisations they supported/trained, their propoganda and the assassinations/kidnappings they had a hand in.
The Stasi infiltrated almost every aspect of GDR life. They had one informer per 6.5 people. By comparison, the Gestapo employed one secret policeman per 2,000 people. This comparison led Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal to call the Stasi even more oppressive than the Gestapo.
And to think they weren’t dissolved until 1990.
9 February 2018 at 11:27 am
The latest news on tis little saga. Barnaby got a subornate Minister to give her a job in his office, presumably to keep the pregnancy out of the limelight.
The postion was upgraded to provide a higher income and was found to be not required any more once she left. So in effect, the tax payer paid the bill to keep a politicians girlfriend employed in a job that was never required.
The government has no right to preach to anyone about integrity.