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Today's Chat, No Set Topic

  

.........................................Something comes into your mind? share it, as everyone is different so all topics have followers :) Happy thoughts, sad thoughts or just reflective thoughts - let's enjoy chatting without agro or nastiness. Who knows what we might learn from each other..........................................:) 

(A combination of Lets Chat and Today in memory of Gerry, Geomac and Seth.) 

Please keep it general so all can be included not about subjects that can aggravate like Politics or Religion. 

Today's Date Sunday 7th May 2017   

Many thanks to RnR and Toot for making this into such an interesting topic on past events for us all to learn so much. 

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Conference on Quantum Mechanics, 1927. There are, among others: Albert Einstein, Marie S. Curie, & Niels Bohr. 17 of the 29 attendees were or became Nobel prize winners.

How amazing ... what a line up!!

It would be a very interesting IQ average in that Quantum Conference

World Water Monitoring Day was originally celebrated annually on September 18. The program, subsequently named the "EarthEcho Water Challenge," aims to build public awareness and involvement in protecting water resources around the world by providing the public with simple test kits to carry out basic monitoring of their local water bodies.

More.

I wish we had more water to monitor. Sad.

Afterall these years, no federal government had the foresight to foresee the dire circumstances our farmers find themselves in today.  Absolutely tragic.

It is sad the farmers did not join in the monitoring of water

1709 – Samuel Johnson, English lexicographer and poet is born.

Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr. Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer.

Johnson is described by the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography as "arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history". He is the subject of the most famous biography in English literature, namely The Life of Samuel Johnson by James Boswell.

Samuel Johnson circa 1772. Painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Samuel Johnson stamp.

After nine years of work, Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language was published in 1755. It had a far-reaching effect on Modern English and has been acclaimed as "one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship". This work brought Johnson popularity and success. Until the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary 150 years later, Johnson's was the pre-eminent British dictionary.

Johnson's Dictionary Volumes 1 and 2 title pages, second edition.

His later works included essays, an influential annotated edition of The Plays of William Shakespeare, and the widely read tale The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia. In 1763, he befriended James Boswell, with whom he later travelled to Scotland; Johnson described their travels in A Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland.

Towards the end of his life, he produced the massive and influential Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets, a collection of biographies and evaluations of 17th- and 18th-century poets.

Johnson and his cat Hodge. Statue of Hodge in the courtyard outside Dr. Johnson's House, 17 Gough Square, London

After a series of illnesses, Samuel Johnson died on the evening of 13 December 1784, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

In the years following his death, Johnson began to be recognised as having had a lasting effect on literary criticism, and he was claimed by some to be the only truly great critic of English literature.

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Interesting to learn about the great man himself.. 


.....After a year spent studying at Pembroke College, Oxford, Johnson was forced to leave by lack of financial support. He tried to find employment as a teacher, but was unable to secure a long-term position. In 1735 he married Elizabeth "Tetty" Porter, a widow 20 years older than himself, and the responsibilities of this marriage made him determined to succeed as an educator. He established his own school, but the venture was unsuccessful. Thereafter, leaving his wife behind in Lichfield, he moved to London, where he spent the rest of his life.....

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_life_of_Samuel_Johnson

1793 – The first cornerstone of the Capitol building is laid by George Washington.

The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. It sits atop Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

The Capitol when first occupied by Congress. Painting by William Russell Birch circa 1800.

The United States Congress was established upon ratification of the United States Constitution and formally began on March 4, 1789. New York City remained home to Congress until July 1790, when the Residence Act was passed to pave the way for a permanent capital. Pierre Charles L'Enfant was given the task of creating the city plan for the new capital city. L'Enfant chose Jenkin's Hill as the site for the "Congress House”. Thomas Jefferson insisted the legislative building be called the "Capitol" rather than "Congress House".

The Capitol after the August 1814 burning of Washington, D.C. by the British, during the War of 1812. Painting by George Munger, 1814.

In spring 1792, United States Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson proposed a design competition to solicit designs for the Capitol and the "President's House", and set a four-month deadline. At least ten individuals submitted designs for the Capitol; however the drawings were regarded as crude and amateurish, reflecting the level of architectural skill present in the United States at the time.

A late entry by amateur architect William Thornton was submitted and after some modifications the revised plan was accepted. On 18 September 1793, President George Washington, along with eight other Freemasons dressed in masonic regalia, laid the silver cornerstone, which was made by silversmith Caleb Bentley.

Inauguration of Abraham Lincoln before the partially complete Capitol dome in 1861.

Western front of the United States Capitol in 1997.

Eastern front of the United States Capitol in 2013.

More.

The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. It sits atop Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C.

1837 – Tiffany and Co., first named Tiffany & Young, is founded by Charles Lewis Tiffany and Teddy Young in New York City. The store is called a "stationery and fancy goods emporium".

Tiffany sells jewellery, sterling silver, china, crystal, stationery, fragrances, water bottles, watches, personal accessories, as well as some leather goods. Tiffany is renowned for its luxury goods and is particularly known for its diamond and sterling silver jewellery. Tiffany markets itself as an arbiter of taste and style and was once a purveyor to the Russian imperial family.

Founded by Charles Lewis Tiffany and John B. Young in Brooklyn, Connecticut on September 18, 1837 as a "stationery and fancy goods emporium", the store initially sold a wide variety of stationery items, and operated as "Tiffany, Young and Ellis" in Lower Manhattan. Unlike other stores at the time in the 1830s, Tiffany clearly marked the prices on its goods to forestall any haggling over prices.

In addition, against the social norm at the time, Tiffany only accepted cash payments, and did not accept payments on credit. Tiffany & Company has since opened stores in major cities all over the world.

In 1853 the nine-foot bronzed statue of Atlas holding a clock above Tiffany’s store at 550 Broadway was one of the first public clocks in New York City soon becoming a landmark and a time reference for many New Yorkers which became used to check their watches against it.

The name was shortened to Tiffany & Company in 1853 when Charles Tiffany took control and established the firm's emphasis on jewellery.

More.

Tiffany & Co.'s 1853 Atlas Clock. The Atlas Clock over the entrance to Tiffany & Co. 550 Broadway in the 1850s.

After moving, the Atlas clock served shoppers and businessmen rushing along busy Union Square for 35 years until Tiffany & Co. moved once again – this time to the imposing white marble palazzo designed by Stanford White on Fifth Avenue between 36th and 37th Streets.

Taffany's Blue Box Cafe, New York

https://www.tiffany.com/blue-box-cafe/

1876 – Birth of James Scullin, ninth Prime Minister of Australia, in Trawalla, Victoria.

James Henry "Jim" Scullin (18 September 1876 – 28 January 1953) was an Australian Labor Party politician and the ninth Prime Minister of Australia. Scullin led Labor to government at the 1929 election. The Wall Street Crash of 1929 transpired just two days after his swearing in, which would herald the beginning of the Great Depression in Australia.

Prime Minister James Scullin and wife Sarah, October 1929.

Scullin's administration would soon be overwhelmed by the economic crisis, with interpersonal and policy disagreements causing a three-way split of his party that would bring down the government in late 1931. Despite his chaotic term of office, Scullin remained a leading figure in the Labor movement throughout his lifetime.

The Scullin Government sworn in, October 1929.

Scullin became a respected elder voice within the party and leading authority on taxation and government finance, and would eventually play a significant role in reforming both when Labor returned to government in 1941. Although disappointed with his own term of office, he nonetheless lived long enough to see many of his government's ideas implemented by subsequent governments before his death in 1953.

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 ….After the crash, the Scullin government tried a range of responses to the crisis: tariff barriers were raised; levels of migration reduced; and customs excise, the main source of federal government revenue, increased.

None had any effect and in August 1930 Scullin invited the director of the Bank of England, Sir Otto Niemeyer, to visit Australia to advise on economic policy. At a meeting of federal and state governments in Melbourne, Niemeyer recommended an approach based on conservative, balanced budgets and insisted that loan interest, much of it to British banks, be paid…..

 

https://www.nma.gov.au/defining-moments/resources/great-depression

Awful times. From your link Toot.

The Australian economy collapsed and unemployment reached a peak of 32 per cent in 1932. It took Australia almost a decade to recover from the Great Depression.

National income declined by a third. More than 40,000 men moved around the country looking for work: setting up shantytowns on the edges of communities and camping in parks. The few jobs that did become available were cruelly fought over.

By 1932, more than 60,000 men, women and children were dependent on the susso, a state-based sustenance payment that enabled families to buy only the bare minimum of food. One Queenslander commented, ‘Many spend more on a dog’.

1947 – The National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency are established in the United States under the National Security Act.

The National Security Act of 1947 was a major restructuring of the United States government's military and intelligence agencies following World War II. The majority of the provisions of the Act took effect on September 18, 1947.

The Act merged the Department of War (renamed as the Department of the Army) and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment (NME), headed by the Secretary of Defense. It also created the Department of the Air Force and the United States Air Force, which separated the Army Air Forces into its own service. It also protected the Marine Corps as an independent service, under the Department of the Navy.

Aside from the military reorganisation, the act established the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency, the U.S.'s first peacetime non-military intelligence agency.

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Every security agency in the world must be working overtime at the moment. lol

1970 – Jimi Hendrix, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer dies.

James Marshall "Jimi" Hendrix (November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American rock guitarist, singer, and songwriter. Although his mainstream career spanned only four years, he is widely regarded as one of the most influential electric guitarists in the history of popular music, and one of the most celebrated musicians of the 20th century. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame describes him as "arguably the greatest instrumentalist in the history of rock music".

Born in Seattle, Washington, Hendrix began playing guitar at the age of 15. In 1961, he enlisted in the U.S. Army and trained as a paratrooper in the 101st Airborne Division; he was granted an honorable discharge the following year. Soon afterward, he moved to Clarksville, Tennessee, and began playing gigs on the Chitlin' Circuit, earning a place in the Isley Brothers' backing band and later with Little Richard, with whom he continued to work through mid-1965.

Within months, Hendrix had earned three UK top ten hits with the Jimi Hendrix Experience: "Hey Joe", "Purple Haze", and "The Wind Cries Mary". He achieved fame in the U.S. after his performance at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967, and in 1968 his third and final studio album, Electric Ladyland, reached number one in the U.S.; it was Hendrix's most commercially successful release and his first and only number one album.

The world's highest-paid performer, he headlined the Woodstock Festival in 1969 and the Isle of Wight Festival in 1970 before his accidental death from barbiturate-related asphyxia on September 18, 1970, at the age of 27.

The Jimi Hendrix Experience was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. Rolling Stone ranked the band's three studio albums, Are You Experienced, Axis: Bold as Love, and Electric Ladyland, among the 100 greatest albums of all time, and they ranked Hendrix as the greatest guitarist and the sixth greatest artist of all time.

More.

1979 – Dr David Tonkin elected Premier of South Australia.

Dr David Oliver Tonkin AO (1929–2000) was the 38th Premier of South Australia, serving from 18 September 1979 to 10 November 1982. He was elected to the House of Assembly seat of Bragg at the 1970 election, serving until 1983. He became the leader of the South Australian Division of the Liberal Party of Australia in 1975, initially leading the party to defeat at the 1977 election against the Don Dunstan Labor government, his party won the 1979 election against the Des Corcoran Labor government.

Following the 1980 Norwood by-election the Tonkin government was reduced to a one-seat majority. His government's policy approach combined economic conservatism with social progressivism. The Tonkin Liberal government was defeated after one term at the 1982 election by Labor led by John Bannon.

Premier David Tonkin and the Chairman of the Pitjantjatjara Council, Mr Kawaki Thompson, signing their agreement to the Pitjantjatjara Land Rights Bill. South Australian Coat of Arms.

Born in Unley, Tonkin's father died when he was five, leaving Tonkin's mother to raise him and his siblings. Tonkin attended local public schools before gaining a scholarship to St Peter's College. Accepted into Medicine at the University of Adelaide, Tonkin worked as a taxi driver while completing his degree and practised as a General Practitioner before undertaking a postgraduate ophthalmology course in London. He established a practice in Adelaide and was soon considered one of the city's leading eye surgeons.

Tonkin's dedication to public service was in evidence through his honorary service as an eye surgeon to Adelaide public hospitals and the initiation, through the Lions Club, of Australia's first public screening programme for glaucoma. In 1962 Tonkin became executive director of the Australian Foundation for Prevention of Blindness SA.

More.

1981 – Dale Buggins Australian motorcycle stuntman dies in Melbourne.

Dale Charles Buggins (1961-1981) was an Australian stunt motorcyclist who had built a national and international reputation by the age of 20. Buggins's work pre-dated Freestyle Motocross and the Crusty Demons by more than 10 years.

In that sense in Australia at least, he was a motorbike stunt pioneer like his idol, Evel Knievel. On 28 May 1978 Buggins broke Knievel's world record by jumping over 25 cars at the Newcastle Motordome and by 1979 he was touring the U.S. in the "Evel Knievel Spectacular".

In 1980 he visited Seattle in the United States to perform with American stunt motorcyclist Gary Wells. Jumping everything from cars to buses, Buggins also created a unique motorcycle high wire act with his sister Chantel. He toured the "Dale Buggins Spectacular", in the States and Australia, appearing at the Sydney Royal Easter Show and others around the country.

Buggins committed suicide on 18 September 1981 in the Marco Polo Hotel in Melbourne, by shooting himself in the chest with a rifle that he purchased the previous day. Buggins had just returned from touring the U.S. and was in Melbourne for the Royal Melbourne Show where he was scheduled to appear.

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How tragic.

More.

1676 – Jamestown is burned to the ground by the forces of Nathaniel Bacon during Bacon's Rebellion.

The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas. William Kelso writes that Jamestown "is where the British Empire began".

It was established by the Virginia Company of London as "James Fort" on May 4, 1607 and was considered permanent after brief abandonment in 1610. Jamestown served as the capital of the colony of Virginia for 83 years, from 1616 until 1699.

Governor Berkeley baring his breast for Bacon to shoot after refusing him a commission. 1895 engraving.

Nathaniel Bacon (1647–1676) was a colonist of the Virginia Colony, famous as the instigator of Bacon's Rebellion of 1676, which collapsed when Bacon himself died from dysentery. Bacon's Rebellion was an armed rebellion in 1676 by Virginia settlers against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.

The colony's dismissive policy as it related to the political challenges of its western frontier, along with other challenges including leaving Bacon out of his inner circle, refusing to allow Bacon to be a part of his fur trade with the Indians, and Doeg American Indian attacks, helped to motivate a popular uprising against Berkeley, who had failed to address the demands of the colonists regarding their safety.

After months of conflict, Bacon's forces, numbering 300-500 men, moved to Jamestown. They burned the colonial capital to the ground on September 19, 1676. Ruins of Jamestown, 1878 engraving.

A thousand Virginians of all classes and races rose up in arms against Berkeley, attacking Indians, chasing Berkeley from Jamestown, Virginia, and ultimately torching the capital.

The rebellion was first suppressed by a few armed merchant ships from London whose captains sided with Berkeley and the loyalists. Government forces from England arrived soon after and spent several years defeating pockets of resistance and reforming the colonial government to be once more under direct royal control.

It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part.

More: JamestownBacon's Rebellion.

Jamestown served as the capital of the colony of Virginia for 83 years – that’s a lifetime.  Appears that Berkeley made a lot of enemies.

1783 – The Montgolfier brothers flew a hot air balloon carrying a sheep, a duck and a rooster over the Palace of Versailles.

Joseph-Michel Montgolfier (1740–1810) and Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier (1745–1799) were the inventors of the Montgolfiere-style hot air balloon, globe aerostatique. The brothers were born into a family of paper manufacturers in Annonay, in Ardeche, France. Of the two brothers, it was Joseph who was first interested in aeronautics, as early as 1775 he built parachutes, and once jumped from the family house. He first contemplated building machines when he observed laundry drying over a fire incidentally form pockets that billowed upwards. Joseph made his first definitive experiments in November 1782 while living in Avignon.

Joseph-Michel Montgolfier and Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier.

The brothers decided to make a public demonstration of a balloon to establish their claim to its invention. They constructed a globe-shaped balloon of sackcloth with three thin layers of paper inside. On 4 June 1783, they flew this craft as their first public demonstration at Annonay in front of a group of dignitaries from the Etats Particuliers. Its flight covered 2 kilometres and lasted 10 minutes.

First public demonstration in Annonay, 4 June 1783.

In collaboration with the wallpaper manufacturer Jean-Baptiste Réveillon, Étienne constructed a 37,500-cubic-foot envelope of taffeta coated with a varnish of alum for fireproofing. The balloon was sky blue and decorated with golden flourishes, signs of the zodiac, and suns. The design showed the intervention of Réveillon.

On 19 September 1783, the Aérostat Réveillon was flown with the first living beings in a basket attached to the balloon: a sheep called Montauciel or Climb-to-the-sky", a duck and a rooster. The sheep was believed to have a reasonable approximation of human physiology. The duck was expected to be unharmed by being lifted and was included as a control for effects created by the aircraft rather than the altitude. The rooster was included as a further control as it was a bird that did not fly at high altitudes. The demonstration was performed at the royal palace in Versailles, before King Louis XVI of France and Queen Marie Antoinette and a crowd. The flight lasted approximately eight minutes, covered two miles (3 km), and obtained an altitude of about 1,500 feet (460 m). The craft landed safely after flying.

Aérostat Réveillon carrying the sheep, the duck and the rooster over Versailles, 19 September 1783.

Since the animals survived, the king allowed flights with humans.

Étienne Montgolfier was the first human to lift off the Earth, making a tethered test flight from the yard of the Réveillon workshop in the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, most likely on 15 October 1783. Word of the Montgolfiier’s success quickly reached Paris. Etienne went to the capital to make further demonstrations and to solidify the brothers' claim to the invention of flight.

The Montgolfier Company still exists in Annonay. Nowadays, it is called Canson and still produces fine art papers, school drawing papers and digital fine art and photography papers.

:) So the first mammal to fly was a sheep, humans followed soon after.

More.

I would like to see the hot air balloon improved, surely they could design something better with more control.

1797 – Upon his return from a survey of Port Stephens, Lieutenant John Shortland shows Governor John Hunter a sample of coal he discovered, leading to the settlement of Newcastle in NSW.

There was no settlement at the time when a group of convict escapees discovered the first-known coal deposits in 1791. The discovery was not made known, as the convicts sought obscurity rather than notoriety. It was a British soldier, Lieutenant John Shortland, who found a coal seam while looking for the escapees in 1797. Shortland completed a detailed survey of Port Stephens and Broken Bay.

After heading back south from Port Stephens, Shortland found a river which had been overlooked by Captain Cook who had charted the eastern coast 27 years earlier. Shortland named this river the "Hunter", after Governor Hunter, and soon after discovered a rich seam of coal. For some time after this, the river was better known as the Coal River.

An Eye Sketch of Hunter’s River 1797 by Lieutenant John Shortland. Hydrographic Department, UK. Insets: Lieutenant John Shortland.

When Lieutenant John Shortland returned to Sydney Cove on the 19th September 1797 with a sketch of the harbour and reports of the abundant coal in the area, Governor Hunter was pleased beyond measure at the coal discovery, which was triumphantly recorded in the diary of the Colonial Secretary in these words: "In this harbour was found a considerable quantity of coal of a very good sort, and lying so near the waterside as to be conveniently shipped, which gave it in this particular a manifest advantage over that discovered at the southward."

Over the next two years several ships sailed to the Hunter for coal and by 1799 sufficient quantities had been brought back to make up a shipment for export. This shipment went to Bengal. It is acknowledged by historians as the first ever export of a commodity from modern Australia.

Ensign Barralier's 1801 Map of Coal Harbour and Rivers.

In order to have sufficient workers to mine the coal and cut timber, a convict camp for particularly hardened criminals was established in 1801. It was initially known as King's Town, after Governor King. From this settlement came the thriving city of Newcastle.

Newcastle, in New South Wales, with a distant view of Point Stephen, 1812 by T.R. Browne. University of Newcastle.

Today, Newcastle is the second largest city in NSW and the largest coal exporting harbour in the world, exporting 159.9 million tonnes of coal in 2017.

More: John Shortland. Hunter Living Histories, University of Newcastle. Discovery and Founding of Newcastle, City of Newcastle.

Note: Coal discovered "at the southward".

In August 1797, a few weeks before Shortland's discovery, George Bass had sought Governor Hunter's permission to take two of the three survivors from the sinking of the ship Sydney Cove and return to the Illawarra to investigate their reports of coal in the area. He discovered coal at what is now known as Coalcliff, between Sydney and Wollongong.

Shortland found a river which had been overlooked by Captain Cook who had charted the eastern coast 27 years earlier. Shortland named this river the "Hunter

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