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Today's Chat, No Set Topic


.........................................Something comes into your mind? share it, as everyone is different so all topics have followers :) Happy thoughts, sad thoughts or just reflective thoughts - let's enjoy chatting without agro or nastiness. Who knows what we might learn from each other..........................................:) 

(A combination of Lets Chat and Today in memory of Gerry, Geomac and Seth.) 

Please keep it general so all can be included not about subjects that can aggravate like Politics or Religion. 

Today's Date Sunday 7th May 2017   

Many thanks to RnR and Toot for making this into such an interesting topic on past events for us all to learn so much. 

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Archaeologists uncover 27 ancient wooden coffins buried for 2,500 years in Egypt in largest discovery of its kind Archaeologists uncover 27 ancient wooden coffins buried for 2,500 years in Egypt

27 sarcophagi (left, top right and bottom right) that were buried 2,500 years ago have been discovered by archaeologists in Egypt this month in what is believed to be the largest find of its kind. Archaeologists working at the ancient Saqqara necropolis near Cairo uncovered the incredible collection. Initially, only 13 sarcophagi were found earlier this month, but further efforts have uncovered an extra 14. Alongside the wooden sarcophagi, smaller statues and artefacts were also discovered by the archaeological team. Pictured left: Egypt's Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, Mostafa Waziri, inspects one of the coffins.

"Initial studies indicate that these coffins are completely closed and haven't been opened since they were buried," Egypt's antiquities ministry said in a statement on Saturday.

Incredible find, thanks Celia.

1831 – The first drawing of a numbat is made, following the first recorded sighting a day before.

The first specimen of a Numbat (Myrmecobius fasciatus) to be scientifically examined was collected within 3 years of the establishment of Perth as the Swan River Colony. The first recorded sightings of Numbats by Europeans occurred in September 1831, during an exploratory trip south along the Avon valley from the site of the present township of York, by Ensign Richard Dale, George Fletcher Moore and two others. Examination of Moore's diary and the expedition map of Dale reveals that this animal was collected to the north-east of Brookton, 138 km from Perth.

Moore’s diary for 21 September reads:

“Saw a beautiful animal; but, as it escaped into the hollow of a tree, could not
ascertain whether it was a species of squirrel, weazel, or wild cat.”

On the next day, the 22 September 1831, he wrote:

“... chased another little animal, such as had escaped from us yesterday, into a hollow tree, where we captured it; from the length of its tongue, and other circumstances, we conjecture that it is an ant-eater – its colour yellowish, barred with black and white streaks across the hinder part of the back; its length about twelve inches”.

George Fletcher Moore. A reproduction of the first drawing of a numbat from George Fletcher Moore's diary on 22 September 1831.

Dale took the specimen back to England and lent it to G.R. Waterhouse, who described and exhibited it at a meeting of the Zoological Society of London.

The subsequent fate of this specimen is not known. A second specimen to come under scientific scrutiny, however, is held in the British Museum of Natural History. Waterhouse first thought it had been collected in Van Diemen's Land, but later found that it was from ‘Swan River’, a term often used in reference to the colony rather than to the vicinity of the river itself. The first published illustration of the Numbat, a full-page hand-coloured lithograph, accompanied Waterhouse's detailed description.

Richter's Myrmecobius fasciatus, 1845 from John Gould, Mammals of Australia, Vol. I Plate 52, London, 1863. Museum of Victoria. My simplified drawing of a numbat.

The Numbat eats termites exclusively. Numbats eat many different species of termites but they do not eat ants, except for incidentally when foraging for termites. They eat up to 20,000 termites a day. Numbats do not need to drink water because they get enough water from the termites they eat.

Once widespread across southern Australia, the Numbat's range is now restricted to several small colonies and it is listed as an endangered species. The numbat is an emblem of Western Australia and protected by conservation programs.

Numbats and woylies flourish at Dryandra after feral cats pushed WA icon towards 'extinction pit'.

Full ABC story.

Just five years ago, the numbat — Western Australia's animal emblem — found itself on the edge of extinction. In just a couple of years its population had crashed. The nocturnal woylie, which is also now only found in Dryandra and two other locations, was also being wiped out, with the population falling from 14,000 to just a few hundred.

Scientists considered a number of different scenarios, including disease. But motion sensor cameras set up at Dryandra, 160 kilometres south-east of Perth and one of only two locations where numbats have managed to survive, showed the striped marsupial was facing a different kind of attack — feral cats.

Juvenile numbats are just starting to emerge from logs in Dryandra woodland.

A feral cat bait called Eradicat was already being trialled in Dryandra and was widely rolled out. A 1,000-hectare predator-proof fence was also built to ensure an "insurance population" of both numbats and woylies. The measures are helping with the number of numbats in Dryandra now increased to about 400.

They are also being supplemented by a breeding program at Perth Zoo, with numbats released back into Dryandra fitted with radio collars to help scientists monitor their survival.

More: Fauna of Australia 22. Myrmecobiidae, by J A Friend. Wikipedia.


Feral cats and foxes - it's a wonder we have any wildlife left.

Cats were also introduced in Australia with the European settlement, but it is a possibility they could have arrived in the 17th century with Dutch shipwrecks. The introduction of cats into the wild in the 1800's was to control the rabbit, rat, and mice populations.


1849 – A report in the Register of South Australia about the dugouts at Burra Creek stated "The unwholesomeness of these holes without ventilation and on the banks of a creek nearly stagnant ... must be apparent to everyone".

On 9 June 1845 William Streair bore samples of a rich copper ore into the office of Henry Ayers, secretary of the South Australian Mining Association. Streair, a young shepherd in the employ of local pastoralist James Stein, had walked the 90 miles from Burra as did Thomas Pickett, a shepherd on a neighbouring property who made a further find. News of the copper this heralded was published on 21 June in Adelaide newspapers, and the site was soon named The Monster Mine.

On 22 September 1849 a report in the SA Register stated ‘The unwholesomeness of these holes without ventilation and on the banks of a creek nearly stagnant ... must be apparent to everyone’. The ‘holes’ referred to were the homes of many miners at Burra who excavated the banks of the Burra Creek to form their living quarters and by 1850 over 1500 people were living on Creek Street.

One description of these dug-outs indicated that some were kept very clean – the one room white-washed inside and sometimes with a paling verandah, the chimney being just a hole to the footpath above. Nevertheless the conditions were unsanitary and typhus, smallpox, and typhoid fever were common especially among the many children.

Another danger was flooding and in February 1850 nearly 80 of these homes were destroyed. More disastrous floods in 1851 left many homeless and news of the discovery of gold at Bathurst induced many to leave. But it was a cheaper way of living than paying rent for a cottage to the SA Mining Association and families continued to live this way for some time.

Until 1860 the mine was the largest metals mine in Australia.

More: The dugouts in Burra, Professional Historians Australia SA. Burra, Wikipedia.

What a fascinating article, thanks RnR.

1882 – Sydney’s magnificent Garden Palace burns to the ground.

On the morning of 22 September 1882, Sydney awoke to a grand and terrible spectacle. Its most flamboyant building, the Garden Palace, was burning to the ground. The Garden Palace was sited at what is today the southwestern end of the Royal Botanic Garden at Farm Cove, although at the time it was built, it occupied land that was outside the Garden and in The Domain.

Farm Cove was established in 1788 by Governor Phillip. Although that farm failed, the land has been in constant cultivation since that time, as ways were found to make the relatively infertile soils more productive. By 1802, the gardens had begun to be planted with a collection of native and exotic plants. The Botanic Garden was founded on the site by Governor Macquarie in 1816 as part of the Governor's Domain. The Gardens underwent numerous changes and developments in ensuing decades, but the most significant was perhaps the construction of the Garden Palace Exhibition Building. This feat of Victorian architecture was, for a brief moment, the pride of Sydney.

Measured against today’s landmarks, the Garden Palace stretched from the Conservatorium, across the Cahill Expressway and in front of the State Library. State Library of NSW.

The Garden Palace was purpose-built for Sydney to host its first international exhibition in 1879 and the first World's Fair to be held in the southern hemisphere. The building was designed by Colonial Architect James Barnet and modelled on London’s Crystal Palace.

One of the great attractions of the exhibition was to ascend the north tower in Sydney’s first hydraulic lift to enjoy rare elevated harbour views. National Library of Australia.

It featured four towers which were visible from almost any point in Sydney. The Garden Palace achieved what it was hoped it would do: it showcased the prosperity of Sydney to the world, and resulted in increased infrastructure for the city, such as a new tram network. Local Indigenous artefacts were also on display at the exhibition. The objects represented the cultures of around 50 different Aboriginal tribes from south-east Australia.

The Garden Palace continued to be utilised extensively after the international event for further exhibitions. Various Government departments established offices in the building with many storing important documents in the basement.

On 22 September 1882, a fire started in the Garden Palace shortly before 6am. Primarily made from timber rather than stone, the enormous building burnt to the ground.

Burning of the Garden Palace, Sydney, September 22 1882. Supplement to the Illustrated Sydney News, 25 October 1882.

A news report on 23 September 1882 described it thus, "When the fire was raging in its greatest strength, the sun was seen behind the burning palace through the haze of smoke raising above the horizon its crimson disc. The scene was the most imposing, as it was the most pitiful, ever seen in the colonies.”

The Burning of the Garden Palace, seen from the North Shore, by John Clarke Hoyte 1882. State Library of NSW.

Valuable documents and records were lost, including the 1881 census, land occupation records, railway surveys, Aboriginal artefacts, priceless artworks, the foundation collection of the Technological and Mining Museum and a new map of the colony which had taken years to complete.

Ruins of the Garden Palace after the fire on 22 September 1882. National Library of Australia.

Very few Australians, including Sydney-siders, are aware there was ever such a building in the Royal Botanic Garden. The only remains of that magnificent structure are its carved Sydney sandstone gateposts and wrought iron gates, located on the Macquarie Street entrance to the Royal Botanical Garden.

Sydney’s Garden Palace stood for just three years from 1879-1882. State Library of NSW.

More: The most beautiful building you've never heard of, Daily Telegraph. ABCWikipedia.

Very few Australians, including Sydney-siders, are aware there was ever such a building in the Royal Botanic Garden.

That's for sure, had no idea.

1885 – Ben Chifley, politician and 16th Prime Minister of Australia, was born in Bathurst, New South Wales.

Joseph Benedict Chifley (22 September 1885 – 13 June 1951) was the 16th Prime Minister of Australia from 1945 to 1949. He was leader of the Labor Party from 1945 until his death.

Chifley was born in Bathurst, New South Wales. He joined the state railways after leaving school, eventually qualifying as an engine driver. He was prominent in the trade union movement before entering politics, and was also a director of The National Advocate. After several previous unsuccessful candidacies, Chifley was elected to parliament in 1928. In 1931, he was appointed Minister for Defence in the government of James Scullin. He served in cabinet for less than a year before losing his seat at the 1931 election, which saw the government suffer a landslide defeat. Chifley was re-elected to parliament again in 1940, on his third attempt since 1931.

Following the death of John Curtin in 1945, he became Leader of the Labor Party and was successful at the 1946 election, retaining a majority in both Houses of the Australian Parliament, and marking the first time that an incumbent federal Labor government was re-elected. The Chifley Government was defeated at the 1949 election.

Ben Chifley, so many achievements. Ben Chifley launching the first mass-produced Australian car.

The radical reforming nature of the Chifley Government was such that, between 1946–49, the Australian Parliament passed 299 Acts, a record up until then.

Amongst the Chifley Labor Government's legislation was the post-war immigration scheme, the establishment of Australian citizenship, the Snowy Mountains Scheme, over-viewing the foundation of airlines Qantas and Trans Australia Airlines, improvements in social services, the creation of the Commonwealth Employment Service, the introduction of federal funds to the States for public housing construction, the establishment of a Universities Commission for the expansion of university education, the introduction of a Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) and free hospital ward treatment, the reorganisation and enlargement of the CSIRO, the establishment of a civilian rehabilitation service, the founding of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO), and the establishment of the Australian National University.

One of the few successful referendums to modify the Australian Constitution, the 1946 Social Services referendum, took place during Chifley's term.


...Chifley's marriage was one of dedication and affection. Perhaps it was the bungled aftermath of a serious miscarriage in 1915 that prevented Elizabeth from bearing children. She suffered from an arthritic or rheumatic condition and was to become a semi-invalid. While Ben was prime minister, she stayed at Bathurst, making only a few excursions to Canberra to act as hostess at The Lodge. Apart from a visit to New Zealand in 1947, she seldom travelled with him. A woman of grace, gentle nature and loyalty, she concealed her deeper feelings by 'austere self-control'. Even during the most pressing times, Ben was a devoted husband who returned to Bathurst every weekend he could manage...

1888 – The first issue of National Geographic magazine is published.

National Geographic, formerly the National Geographic Magazine, is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society. It has been published continuously since its first issue in September 1888, nine months after the Society itself was founded. It primarily contains articles about science, geography, history, and world culture. The magazine is known for its thick square-bound glossy format with a yellow rectangular border and its extensive use of dramatic photographs. Controlling interest in the magazine has been held by 21st Century Fox since 2015.

The first issue of National Geographic in 1888 contained no photographs and cost 50 cents. A 1937 cover.

The first issue of National Geographic Magazine was published on September 22, 1888.

National Geographic Magazine was initially a scholarly journal sent to 165 charter members and nowadays it reaches the hands of 40 million people each month. Starting with its January 1905 publication of several full-page pictures of Tibet in 1900–1901, the magazine changed from being a text-oriented publication closer to a scientific journal to featuring extensive pictorial content, and became well known for this style. The June 1985 cover portrait of the presumed to be 12-year-old Afghan girl Sharbat Gula, shot by photographer Steve McCurry, became one of the magazine's most recognisable images.

1984 photographic portrait by journalist Steve McCurry and subsequent National Geographic cover.

In addition to being well known for articles about scenery, history, and the most distant corners of the world, the magazine has been recognised for its book-like quality and its standard of photography. It was during the tenure of Society President Alexander Graham Bell and editor Gilbert H. Grosvenor (GHG) that the significance of illustration was first emphasised, in spite of criticism from some of the Board of Managers who considered the many illustrations an indicator of an “unscientific” conception of geography.

By 1910, photographs had become the magazine’s trademark and Grosvenor was constantly on the search for "dynamical pictures" as Graham Bell called them, particularly those that provided a sense of motion in a still image. In 1915, GHG began building the group of staff photographers and providing them with advanced tools including the latest darkroom.

National Geographic Photo of the Day: 21 September 2020.




I'll never forget the beautiful face of that girl.  Her image has been likened to the Mona Lisa.

In 2002, she was identified as Sharbat Gula, a Pashtun child living in the Nasir Bagh refugee camp in Pakistan during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan when she was photographed.



1910 – The Duke of York's Picture House opens in Brighton, now the oldest continually operating cinema in Britain.

The Duke of York's Picture House is an art house cinema in Brighton, England, which lays claim to being the oldest cinema in continuous use in Britain. According to cinema historian Allen Eyles, the cinema "deserves to be named Britain's oldest cinema". In 2012 it was voted best Cinema in the UK.

Opening day, 22 September 1910.

The Duke of York's cinema was built at the cost of £3000 by actress-manager Violet Melnotte-Wyatt. It opened on 22 September 1910 and was one of Brighton's first picture palaces and also one of the first cinemas in the world. The Duke of York's was always a quality cinema for the more discerning patron, its marketing tag-line for many years was "Bring her to the Duke's, it is fit for a Duchess." The cinema has operated as an arts cinema since 1981 and has passed through several owners and hosted illegal punk rock concerts.

Duke of York's today.

The cinema was in a shabby state when it was purchased in 1994 by Picturehouse Cinemas who have invested in the building and returned it to its former glory. It houses one single screen with 278 seats, including a luxury balcony. It originally seated over 800, but modifications have been made to the inside of the building to create the café/bar upstairs, a concession space downstairs, and to allow for greater comfort.

Cinema in Australia.

The Athanaeum Hall in Collins Street, Melbourne exhibited the first movie shown in Australia in October 1896, within a year of the first public screening of a film in Paris on 28 December 1895 by the French Lumière brothers.

In 1906, T.J. West was the first Australian to construct a purpose-built hall for exhibiting motion pictures. By 1910, T.J. West controlled 14 permanent cinemas throughout Australia and his venues were estimated to attract a nightly audience of 20,000. The Classic Cinema in the Melbourne inner suburb of Elsternwick claims to be the longest continuously operating cinema in Victoria, opening in 1911.

The world's oldest continuously operating outdoor cinema, the Sun Picture Gardens or Sun Pictures, is located in Broome, Western Australia.

According to Guinness World Records, it holds the title of the Oldest Open-Air Cinema in Operation. Its opening night was held on 9th of December 1916.


1918 – First direct radio message between London and Sydney.

On 22nd September 1918 direct wireless messages from England were received in Australia, creating considerable public interest and causing a political controversy. The messages were transmitted from the big Marconi station at Carnarvon in Wales and were received at the home of Ernest Fisk, the Managing Director of Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Limited (A.W.A.).

On 22nd September 1918, Ernest Fisk received the first wireless message from Carnarvon at his own home experimental amateur station. Radio tower and monument at Fisk’s home in Wahroonga, NSW.

Two communications were sent, one from the Prime Minister of Australia, Mr. W.M. "Billy" Hughes, who was in England trying to raise enthusiasm for the Australian war effort in Europe because public support was waning and the disastrous English military leadership of the Australian forces was under serious question.

1.15pm Sydney time: "I have just returned from a visit to the battlefields where the glorious valour and dash of the Australian troops saved Amiens and forced back the legions of the enemy, filled with greater admiration than ever for these glorious men and more convinced than ever that it is the duty of their fellow-citizens to keep these magnificent battalions up to their full strength." W.M. Hughes, Prime Minister.

E. T. Fisk with Australian Prime Minister, Billy Hughes.

The second message was from the Minister for the Navy, Mr. Joseph Cook, who accompanied Hughes. Australia's efforts to sell its farm produce to England were being frustrated by the English farmers and unions, which explains the jingoistic tone of Hughes and Cook's wireless messages.

1.25pm Sydney time: "Royal Australian Navy is magnificently bearing its part in the great struggle. Spirit of sailors and soldiers alike is beyond praise. Recent hard fighting brilliantly successful but makes reinforcements imperative. Australia hardly realises the wonderful reputation which our men have won. Every effort being constantly made here to dispose of Australia's surplus products." Joseph Cook, Minister for Navy.

AWA published a souvenir document of the event with the heading "The First Direct Wireless Messages from England to Australia." with a reproduction of the actual message forms as supposedly written down in Sydney.

As it happened, Germany capitulated soon after this event and both Hughes and Cook then took part in the Peace Conference and negotiations in November 1918.


1934 – An explosion takes place at Gresford Colliery in Wales, leading to the deaths of 266 miners and rescuers.

Gresford Colliery was a coal mine located a mile from the North Wales village of Gresford, near Wrexham. The first coal was produced in June, 1911 and full production reached before the outbreak of World War I. One of Britain's worst coal mining disasters occurred at the colliery.

The Gresford Disaster occurred on Saturday 22 September 1934, when 266 men died in the underground explosion. As there was a football match on the Saturday afternoon between Wrexham and Tranmere Rovers, on Friday, 21 September, many miners doubled up their shifts so they could attend the match. This meant there were more miners down the pit than there ordinarily would have been.

Crowds gather at the colliery to await news of the disaster.

The explosion occurred in the Dennis district at around 2am, the time when the men would be having their mid-shift snack. Only six men survived the blast. A fire followed the explosion, and the mine was sealed off at the end of the following day. On 25 September, rescuer George Brown was killed on the surface when another explosion blew a seal off the Dennis shaft and he was hit by flying debris. Only eleven bodies were ever recovered. The mine owners docked the men half a day's pay, as they had not completed a full day's shift.

Painting in All Saints' Church, Gresford commemorating the 1934 Gresford disaster, above a book with the names of the 266 who died.

The disaster left 591 widows, children, parents and other dependants. In addition, over 1500 miners were temporarily without work, until the colliery was re-opened in January 1936. After each newspaper opened its own fund, they and national donations by September 1935 totalled £565,000. 

The graves of hundreds of miners killed in one of the UK’s worst pit tragedies could be desecrated if controversial drilling plans go ahead, campaigners say. Up to 255 victims of the 1934 Gresford Colliery disaster lie underground in a mass tomb close to where Dart Energy want to drill for coal bed gas. Source ... 26 November 2014, story from the Mirror UK.

More: WikipediaFully detailed account with photos, Wrexham County Borough Council.

Shocking disaster.  I'll never forget the wonderful movie How Green is My Valley.

1978 – Harry Kewell, Australian football (soccer) player, was born in Smithfield, Sydney.

Harry Kewell is an Australian football coach and former player who is the head coach of League Two club Crawley Town. Kewell was born on 22 September 1978 in Sydney to an English father, Rod, and an Australian mother, Helen. Harry grew up supporting Liverpool in English football's First Division. Kewell received his early schooling at Smithfield Public School and secondary schooling at St. Johns Park High School before transferring to Westfield Sports High School.

Kewell played for Leeds United, Liverpool, Galatasaray, Melbourne Victory, Al-Gharafa and Melbourne Heart. While at Leeds he was named the PFA Young Player of the Year in 2000. Internationally he has received 58 caps, and scored 17 goals, while playing for the Australian national soccer team. A left winger also capable of playing as an attacking midfielder or second striker, he is often regarded within the media as "Australia's finest football export", despite his career being blighted with injury.

In 2012, Kewell was named Australia's greatest footballer in a vote by Australian fans, players and media.

In February 2012, Kewell scored his last goal for Australia in a 4-2 win over Saudi Arabia in Melbourne. He played his final game for Australia against Oman on 8 June 2012, the game finished 0-0.

Kewell represented Australia at the 1995 FIFA U-17 World Championship, the 1997 FIFA Confederations Cup, where Australia finished runners-up, the 2004 OFC Nations Cup, which Australia claimed for the fourth time, the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the 2007 AFC Asian Cup, the 2010 FIFA World Cup and the 2011 AFC Asian Cup, where Australia finished runners-up.

More recently in England, Kewell has been head coach of the Watford Under-21 team 2015-2017, head coach of the Crawley Town team 2017-2018, becoming the first Australian to coach a professional English side, and manager of the Nott's County team in 2018. On 1st August 2020, Kewell was appointed as manager of Oldham Athletic, on a one year contract with the option to extend for a further year.


1338 – The Battle of Arnemuiden was the first naval battle using artillery and the first naval battle of the Hundred Years' War.

The Battle of Arnemuiden was a naval battle fought on 23 September 1338 at the start of the Hundred Years' War between England and France. It was the first naval battle of the Hundred Years' War and the first recorded European naval battle using artillery, as the English ship Christopher had three cannons and one hand gun.

The Battle of Arnemuiden, 23 September 1338. 15th century depiction, Dutch National Library.

The battle, near the port of Arnemuiden, featured a vast French fleet under admirals Hugues Quiéret and Nicolas Béhuchet against a small squadron of five great English cogs transporting an enormous cargo of wool to Antwerp, where Edward III of England was hoping to sell it, in order to be able to pay subsidies to his allies.

Overwhelmed by the superior numbers and with some of their crew still on shore, the English ships fought bravely, especially the Christopher under the command of John Kingston, who was also commander of the squadron. Kingston surrendered after a day's fighting and exhausting every means of defence.

The French captured the rich cargo and took the five cogs into their fleet, but massacred the English prisoners.


1641 – The Merchant Royal, carrying a treasure of over 100,000 pounds of gold, worth over £1.5b USD today, is lost at sea off Land's End.

Merchant Royal also known as Royal Merchant, was a 17th-century English merchant ship lost at sea off Land's End, Cornwall in rough weather on 23 September 1641. On board were at least 100,000 pounds of gold (over 1.5 billion USD in today's money), 400 bars of Mexican silver and nearly 500,000 pieces of eight and other coins, making it one of the most valuable wrecks of all times. Eighteen men drowned in the sinking. Captain Limbrey and 40 of his crew got away in boats and were picked up by Dover Merchant.

The Merchant Royal spent three years trading with Spanish colonies in the West Indies from 1637 to 1640. England was at peace with Spain at this time. The Merchant Royal and her sister-ship, the Dover Merchant, called into Cadiz on their way home to London. By all accounts she was leaking badly after her long voyage.

When a Spanish ship in Cadiz at the same time caught fire just before she was due to carry treasure to convert into pay for Spain's 30,000 soldiers in Flanders, the Merchant Royal's Captain Limbrey saw his chance to make a little more cash for his owners. He volunteered to carry the treasure to Antwerp on his way home. The Merchant Royal went on leaking after she and her sister-ship left Cadiz and, when the pumps broke down, she sank off Land's End in rough weather on 23 September 1641.

The Odyssey Marine Exploration company has tried for several years to locate the wreck but has been unsuccessful thus far.



 From the link

The team continued to search for the ship on the 2009 Discovery Channel television show, Treasure Quest, but were unsuccessful once again.

In March 2019 an anchor, which was subsequently identified as the Merchant Royal’s, was brought up in the net of a fishing vessel. However the vessel had trawled for a considerable distance before hauling up its net. Nevertheless, records were kept by the vessel, and so the search area is now (2020) very considerably narrowed.



1642 – First commencement exercises occur at Harvard College.

Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world. Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton (1610–1674); in 1639, he also became its first instructor to be dismissed, for overstrict discipline. The school's first students were graduated in 1642.

Harvard College in the Eighteenth Century.

Although founded in 1636, Harvard did not hold its first Commencement until 23 September 1642. In so doing, the College gave the country its first taste of nonreligious European ritual. The “taste” went far beyond mere metaphor. “A prominent feature of the Commencement was a feast,” writes the late historian Samuel Eliot Morison in Three Centuries of Harvard. Such gastronomic delights remain with us in present-day “alumni spreads” in the Yard, which trace back deep as the tree roots over which the festivities transpire. In times past, Commencement was the most joyous, even raucous, event of the summer. More.

The oldest available photo from a Harvard Commencement shows the 1885 Commencement speakers.

Charles A. Wagner sets the scene for us in Harvard: Four Centuries and Freedoms:

The academic procession on that far distant September morning of 1642 counted the nine “commencers,” four junior sophisters, and eight or ten freshmen, with a motley audience of visitors from Boston and all the settlements nearby; ministers, Indians, residents, parents, and gloating familiars. The people made it a holiday of annual joy in learning. And there were orations by the commencers in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin. Then, in the afternoon session, came the series of disputations in Latin between commencers on many of the age-old topics of the theses philosophicae and philologicae.

Commencement festivities in Harvard Yard, 1895.


Harvard University. Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S. Harvard University is the standard by which all other research universities are measured.

1846 – Astronomers Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier, John Couch Adams and Johann Gottfried Galle collaborate on the discovery of Neptune.

Some of the earliest recorded observations ever made through a telescope, Galileo's drawings on 28 December 1612 and 27 January 1613, contain plotted points that match up with what is now known to be the position of Neptune. On both occasions, Galileo seems to have mistaken Neptune for a fixed star.

In 1843, British mathematician and astronomer John Couch Adams began work on the orbit of Uranus using the data he had. Adams continued to work in 1845–46 and produced several different estimates of a new planet. In 1845–46, French mathematician Urbain Le Verrier, independently of Adams, developed his own calculations but aroused no enthusiasm in his compatriots.

In June 1846, upon seeing Le Verrier's first published estimate of the planet's longitude and its similarity to Adams's estimate, Sir George Airy, the Astronomer Royal persuaded Cambridge Observatory director James Challis to search for the planet. Challis vainly scoured the sky throughout August and September.

Meanwhile, Le Verrier by letter urged Berlin Observatory astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle to search with the observatory's refractor. 

On the evening of 23 September 1846, the day Galle received the letter, he discovered Neptune within 1° of where Le Verrier had predicted it to be, about 12° from Adams' prediction.

In the wake of the discovery, there was much nationalistic rivalry between the French and the British over who deserved credit for the discovery.

Eventually, an international consensus emerged that both Le Verrier and Adams jointly deserved credit. The issue was re-evaluated by historians with the return in 1998 of the "Neptune papers" (historical documents) to the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. After reviewing the documents, they suggest that "Adams does not deserve equal credit with Le Verrier for the discovery of Neptune. That credit belongs only to the person who succeeded both in predicting the planet's place and in convincing astronomers to search for it."

Comparison of the size of Neptune and Earth.

Neptune is named after the Roman god of the sea and its astronomical symbol is a stylised version of the god Neptune's trident.

Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System. In the Solar System, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter, the third-most-massive planet, and the densest giant planet. Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth and is slightly more massive than its near-twin Uranus.

Neptune orbits the Sun once every 164.8 years.


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