The Meeting Place

Today's Chat, No Set Topic


.........................................Something comes into your mind? share it, as everyone is different so all topics have followers :) Happy thoughts, sad thoughts or just reflective thoughts - let's enjoy chatting without agro or nastiness. Who knows what we might learn from each other..........................................:) 

(A combination of Lets Chat and Today in memory of Gerry, Geomac and Seth.) 

Please keep it general so all can be included not about subjects that can aggravate like Politics or Religion. 

Today's Date Sunday 7th May 2017   

Many thanks to RnR and Toot for making this into such an interesting topic on past events for us all to learn so much. 

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1960 – USS Enterprise, the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, is launched.

USS Enterprise CVN-65 was the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the eighth United States naval vessel to bear the name. She was launched and christened on 24 September 1960.

Enterprise was intended as the first of a class of six carriers, but massive increases in construction costs led to the remaining vessels being cancelled. Because of the huge cost of her construction, Enterprise was launched and commissioned without the planned RIM-2 Terrier missile launchers. These were never installed and the ship's self-defence suite instead consisted of three shorter-range weapons.

Enterprise is the only aircraft carrier to house more than two nuclear reactors, having an eight-reactor propulsion design, with each A2W reactor taking the place of one of the conventional boilers in earlier constructions. She is the only carrier with four rudders.

USS Enterprise CVN-65 underway in the Atlantic Ocean on 14 June 2004.

On 25 June 1961, Enterprise joined the 2nd Fleet on her initial operational deployment, carrying out training off the US east coast. In October 1962, Enterprise was dispatched to her first international mission during the Cuban missile crisis. Later deployments included the Vietnam War and duties in Southeast Asia. In July 1976, Enterprise began her eighth Western Pacific deployment taking part in the ANZUS exercise 'Kangaroo II' with ships of the Australian and New Zealand Navies. On 28 June 1996, Enterprise began her 15th overseas deployment to enforced no-fly zones in Bosnia. In the 2000s she was involved the invasion of Iraq.

In 2010 she was refurbished at a cost of $662 million and deployed in the Middle East. On 1 December 2012 the USS Enterprise became the first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier to be decommissioned. The final reactor was defuelled in December 2016. The same day, the ship was stricken from the Naval Vessel Registry after over 55 years of service.

The only ship of her class, Enterprise was, at the time of inactivation, the third-oldest commissioned vessel in the United States Navy after the wooden-hulled USS Constitution and USS Pueblo. Enterprise will be stored at Hampton Roads until disposal plans can be determined by the Navy.



2016 – Bill Mollison, Australian researcher, author and biologist dies.

Bruce Charles "Bill" Mollison (4 May 1928 – 24 September 2016) born in Stanley, Tasmania was an Australian researcher, author, scientist, teacher and biologist.

He is referred to as the “father of permaculture”. Permaculture is an integrated system of ecological and environmental design which Mollison co-developed with David Holmgren, and which they together envisioned as a perennial and sustainable form of agriculture.

In 1974, Mollison began his collaboration with Holmgren, and in 1978 they published their book Permaculture One, which introduced this design system to the general public. Mollison founded The Permaculture Institute in Tasmania, and created the education system to train others under the umbrella of permaculture. This education system of "train the trainer", utilised through a formal Permaculture Design Course and Certification (PDC), has taught thousands of people throughout the world how to grow food and be sustainable using permaculture design principles.

In 1987, Mollison taught the first PDC course that was offered in India. By 2011 there had been over 300,000 such graduates practicing and teaching throughout the world.



The greatest change we need to make is from consumption to production, even if on a small scale, in our own gardens. If only 10% of us do this, there is enough for everyone. Hence the futility of revolutionaries who have no gardens, who depend on the very system they attack, and who produce words and bullets, not food and shelter – Bill Mollison

1237 – England and Scotland sign the Treaty of York, establishing the location of their common border.

The Treaty of York was an agreement between the kings Henry III of England and Alexander II of Scotland, signed at York on 25 September 1237, which affirmed that Northumberland, which at the time also encompassed County Durham, Cumberland, and Westmorland were subject to English sovereignty.

This established the Anglo-Scottish border in a form that remains almost unchanged to modern times. The only modifications have been regarding the Debatable Lands and Berwick-upon-Tweed. The treaty detailed the future status of several feudal properties and addressed other issues between the two kings, and historically marked the end of the Kingdom of Scotland's attempts to extend its frontier southward.

History of the border. Hadrian's Wall near Greenhead ... the wall has never formed part of the actual Anglo-Scottish border.

Henry and Alexander had a history of making agreements to settle one matter or another, and related to this was their personal relationship. Alexander was married to Henry's sister Joan and Alexander's sister Margaret had married Hubert de Burgh, a former regent to Henry. On 13 August 1237 Henry advised papal legate Otho that he would meet Alexander at York to to conclude a peace treaty. An agreement was reached on 25 September "respecting all claims, or competent to, the latter, up to Friday next before Michaelmas A.D. 1237".

More: Treaty of York. Anglo-Scottish border.

Scottish economy

Initially, Scotland’s response to the coronavirus outbreak fell largely in line with the rest of the UK, with its lockdown imposed on 23 March, the same day as England. However, Scotland has adopted a more cautious approach to lifting lockdown measures than its neighbour, prompting interesting comparisons regarding the economic decline and initial recovery stage of the two nations.

Despite following a fairly similar trend, Scotland’s economy has underperformed the wider UK economy in recent years. 

……..However, government revenue from North Sea oil has plunged from almost £11 billion in 2011-12 to £1.2 billion in 2018-19. This has prevented a post-financial crisis improvement in the country’s net fiscal balance, widening the gap between the budget deficits of the Scottish economy and that of the wider UK economy.

1513 – Spanish explorer Vasco Nunez de Balboa becomes the first European to sight the Pacific Ocean after crossing the Isthmus of Panama.

Vasco Nunez de Balboa (1475–1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador. He traveled to the New World in 1500 and, after some exploration, settled on the island of Hispaniola. He founded the settlement of Santa María la Antigua del Darien in present-day Panama in 1510, which was the first permanent European settlement on the mainland of the Americas.

Balboa is best known for having crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the South Sea in 1513, becoming the first European to have seen the Pacific Ocean as it is known today.

The expedition to the South Sea was organised in Santa Maria. Balboa started his journey across the Isthmus of Panama on 1 September 1513, together with 190 Spaniards, a few native guides, and a pack of dogs. On September 20 the expedition entered the dense jungle, and, with some difficulty, arrived four days later in the lands of cacique Torecha, who ruled in the village of Cuarecua. A fierce battle took place, during which Balboa's forces defeated Torecha, who was killed by one of Balboa's dogs. Torecha's followers decided to join the expedition. However, the group was by then exhausted and several men were badly wounded, so many decided to stay in Cuarecua to regain their strength.

The few men who continued the journey with Balboa entered the mountain range along the Chucunaque River the next day. According to information from the natives, one could see the South Sea from the summit of this range.

On 25 September Balboa went ahead of his men and before noon that day, 25 September 1513, he reached the summit of a mountain range along the Chucunaque River and saw, far away in the horizon, the waters of the undiscovered sea.

The emotions were such that the others eagerly joined in to show their joy at Balboa's "discovery". Andres de Vera, the expedition's chaplain, intoned the Te Deum, while the men erected stone pyramids, and engraved crosses on the barks of trees with their swords, to mark the place where the "discovery" of the South Sea was made.

Balboa claiming possession of the South Sea.

After the moment of discovery, the expedition descended from the mountain range towards the sea. Once there, Balboa raised his hands, his sword in one and a standard with the image of the Virgin Mary in the other, walked knee-deep into the ocean, and claimed possession of the new sea and all adjoining lands in the name of the Spanish sovereigns.


Love that word Isthmus, didn't know what it was until I visited Bruny Island in Tasmania, climbed the lookout and saw it for myself. lol

1862 – Billy Hughes, the seventh Prime Minister of Australia, was born in London.

William Morris Hughes, CH, QC (25 September 1862 – 28 October 1952) was an Australian politician who was the seventh Prime Minister of Australia, from 1915 to 1923. Born and raised in London, Hughes was the son of Welsh parents. At age 22, he emigrated to Australia and entered politics.

Over the course of his 51-year federal parliamentary career (and an additional seven years prior to that in a colonial parliament), Hughes changed parties five times: from Labor (1894–1916) to National Labor (1916–17) to Nationalist (1917–30) to Australian (1930–31) to United Australia (1931–44) to Liberal (1944–52).

Billy Hughes was expelled from three parties, and represented four different electorates in two states.

Originally Prime Minister as leader of the Labor Party, his support for World War I conscription in Australia led him, along with 24 other pro-conscription members, to form National Labor. National Labor merged with the Commonwealth Liberal Party to form the Nationalist Party.

On 28 October 1916 the first of two controversial conscription referendums was held in Australia. Military training for men between 18 and 60 had been compulsory since 1911, but the referendums asked to extend this to overseas service. If Australians voted ‘yes’ for conscription, many of their mates would be forced to go to war.

The Death ballot, Riley and Ephemera Collection. Cartoon from the Australian Worker, 5 October 1916, depicting the pro-conscription PM Billy Hughes. Labor Party anti-conscription advertisement, National Library of Australia.

Prime Minister Billy Hughes made two attempts to introduce conscription: two conscription referenda were held in 1916 and 1917. Both lost to the 'no' vote.

In 1919 Hughes, with former Prime Minister Joseph Cook, travelled to Paris to attend the Versailles Peace Conference. He remained away for 16 months, and signed the Treaty of Versailles on behalf of Australia – the first time Australia had signed an international treaty. At Versailles, Hughes claimed: "I speak for 60 000 Australian dead". He asked of Woodrow Wilson; "How many do you speak for?" when the United States President failed to acknowledge his demands.

Hughes, unlike Wilson or South African Prime Minister Jan Smuts, demanded heavy reparations from Germany, suggesting a staggering sum of £24,000,000,000 of which Australia would claim many millions to off-set its own war debt. Hughes frequently clashed with President Wilson, who described him as a "pestiferous varmint".

Australian soldiers carrying the "Little Digger" down George Street, Sydney, after Hughes returned from the Paris Peace Conference of 1919.

His prime ministership came to an end when the Nationalist party was forced to form a coalition with the Country Party, who refused to serve under Hughes. He was the longest-serving prime minister up to that point, and the fifth longest serving over all. He would later lead the United Australia Party to the 1943 election, though Arthur Fadden served as Coalition leader.

The Right Honourable William Morris (Billy) Hughes, with his wife Mary, his daughter Helen, and nursemaid aboard the troopship HMAT Euripides. The photograph was taken by Denver Wood Wansey, who served as a merchant seaman on the Euripides from 13 October 1914 to 31 May 1923. Funeral of Billy Hughes – the crowd along George Street, near the Queen Victoria Building, Frank Burke.

Billy Hughes died died on 28 October 1952, aged 90 at his home in Lindfield, whilst still serving in Parliament. His state funeral was held at St Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney and was one of the largest Australia has seen: some 450,000 spectators lined the streets. He was later buried at Macquarie Park Cemetery and Crematorium.

Billy Hughes is the longest-serving member of the Australian Parliament, and one of the most colourful and controversial figures in Australian political history.


.......He publicly crossed the lofty Wilson in an exchange seen by observers as the ‘little David facing the American Goliath’. Chided later by Wilson in the debate on the German Pacific colonies because Australia represented only a small country of five million people, Hughes replied simply: ‘I speak for 60,000 dead.’ As the story of the confrontations spread around Paris, Hughes became something of a folk hero.

1876 – The current state flag of Tasmania is adopted.

Tasmania began as a second colony in 1803, administered by the Governor of New South Wales. In June 1825, Van Diemen's Land, as it was then known, was separated administratively from New South Wales, and Hobart Town was declared the capital of the colony. The colony was officially renamed Tasmania, in honour of its discoverer Abel Tasman, in 1856.

In 1869, Queen Victoria proposed that each of the colonies in Australia adopt a flag, which should consist of a Union flag with the state badge in the centre. The first Tasmanian flag was adopted by proclamation of Tasmanian colonial Governor Sir Frederick Weld in November 1875, but as it included two badges - both a white cross and the Southern Cross - it was discarded within two weeks. A year later, it was decided that the badge should consist of a red lion on a white disc.

Tasmanian state and civil flag. Governor's flag.

The Governor's flag is is identical in design and construction to the flag of Tasmania, except that it features a St. Edward's Crown above the badge to represent vice-regal power.

On 25 September 1876, the current state flag of Tasmania was officially adopted following a proclamation by Tasmanian colonial Governor Sir Frederick Weld, and was first published in the Tasmanian Gazette the same day. In the governor's proclamation there were three additional official flags, they being the Governor's flag, the Tasmania Government vessel flag, and a Tasmania merchant flag.


Love Tasmania, sad it's still regarded as the 'poor state' despite their popular tourist industry.

I loved my visit to Tasmania a few years ago. I would love to go back one day as there are some lovely spots I would like to visit. 

Me too Hola.

1890 – The United States Congress establishes Sequoia National Park.

Sequoia National Park is a national park in the southern Sierra Nevada east of Visalia, California, in the United States. It was established on September 25, 1890.

The park spans 404,064 acres. Encompassing a vertical relief of nearly 4,000 metres, the park contains among its natural resources the highest point in the contiguous 48 United States, Mount Whitney, at 4,421 metres above sea level. The park is south of and contiguous with Kings Canyon National Park; the two are administered by the National Park Service together as the Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. They were designated the UNESCO Sequoia-Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve in 1976.

The General Sherman Tree, the largest tree in the world. Crescent Meadow, a sequoia-rimmed meadow in the Giant Forest region of Sequoia National Park. Grove of giant sequoia trees.

The park is famous for its giant sequoia trees, including the General Sherman tree, the largest tree on Earth. The General Sherman tree grows in the Giant Forest, which contains five out of the ten largest trees in the world. The Giant Forest is connected by the Generals Highway to Kings Canyon National Park's General Grant Grove, home to the General Grant tree among other giant sequoias.

The park's giant sequoia forests are part of 202,430 acres of old-growth forests shared by Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Indeed, the parks preserve a landscape that still resembles the southern Sierra Nevada before Euro-American settlement.

More: Sequoia National Park. Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks fire updates September 2020, National Park Service.

Awesome trees.

Hope they've survived the 2020 fires.

1976 – The band U2 formed in Dublin.

U2 are an Irish rock band from Dublin formed on 25 September 1976. The group consists of Bono (lead vocals and rhythm guitar), the Edge (lead guitar, keyboards, and backing vocals), Adam Clayton (bass guitar), and Larry Mullen Jr. (drums and percussion).

Initially rooted in post-punk, U2's musical style evolved throughout their career, yet has maintained an anthemic sound built on Bono's expressive vocals and the Edge's effects-based guitar textures. Their lyrics, often embellished with spiritual imagery, focus on personal and sociopolitical themes. Popular for their live performances, the group have staged several ambitious and elaborate tours over their career.

U2 takes a curtain call during a 7 November 2015 performance in Glasgow on the Innocence + Experience Tour L to R: the Edge, Bono, Mullen, Clayton.

U2 have released 13 studio albums and are one of the world's best-selling music artists in history, having sold more than 170 million records worldwide. They have won 22 Grammy Awards, more than any other band, and in 2005, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in their first year of eligibility. Rolling Stone ranked U2 at number 22 on its list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time".

Throughout their career, as a band and as individuals, they have campaigned for human rights and philanthropic causes, including Amnesty International, Jubilee 2000, the ONE/DATA campaigns, Product Red, War Child, and Music Rising.


Adam Clayton, Bono, the Edge and Larry Mullen Jr. of Irish rock band U2, arriving at Mumbai international airport for the “Joshua Tree Tour” on December 12, 2019 in Mumbai, India.

Prodip Guha/Getty images


….The fund, “Impact Ireland,” received between approximately 20 million euros and 30 million euros in the first round of fundraising, which launched in September 2019 and closed in May 2020. The second round of fundraising is now underway.

1998 – Esso Longford natural gas plant explosion in Gippsland.

The Esso Longford gas explosion was a catastrophic industrial accident which occurred at the Esso natural gas plant at Longford in the Australian state of Victoria's Gippsland region. On 25 September 1998, an explosion took place at the plant, killing two workers and injuring eight. Gas supplies to the state of Victoria were severely affected for two weeks.

Explosion at Esso's Longford gas plant near Sale in September 1998. The company was later found at fault.

During the morning of Friday 25 September 1998, a pump supplying heated lean oil to heat exchanger GP905 in Gas Plant No. 1 went offline for four hours, due to an increase in flow from the Marlin Gas Field which caused an overflow of condensate in the absorber. About 10 metric tonnes of hydrocarbon vapour were immediately vented from the rupture.

The fire at Esso Longford burned for 52 hours.

A vapour cloud formed and drifted downwind. When it reached a set of heaters 170 metres away, it ignited. This caused a deflagration (a burning vapour cloud). The flame front burnt its way through the vapour cloud, without causing an explosion. When the flamefront reached the rupture in the heat exchanger, a fierce jet fire developed that lasted for two days.

Esso Australia manager Richard Owen said the disaster was deeply distressing and caused widespread hardship. "In the months leading up to 25 September 1998, we had every reason to be proud of our safety performance. Then suddenly on a sunny Friday in spring our world turned upside down.

"The damage to our facilities was soon repaired, gas supplies were restored and the broader community eventually recovered. However, there are many people who will never fully recover from the Longford accident, particularly the families and friends of John Lowery and Peter Wilson and those who were badly injured."


Shocking accident.

2000 – Cathy Freeman wins gold in the 400m final at the 2000 Sydney Olympics.

Catherine Astrid Salome "Cathy" Freeman, OAM (born 16 February 1973) is an Australian former sprinter, who specialised in the 400 metres event. She would occasionally compete in other track events, but 400m was her main event. Her personal best of 48.63 currently ranks her as the sixth fastest woman of all time, set while finishing second to Marie-Jose Perec's number-three time at the 1996 Olympics.

She became the Olympic champion for the women's 400 metres at the 2000 Summer Olympics on Monday 25 September 2000. She also lit the Olympic Flame for the 2000 Sydney Olympics.

Freeman preparing to race in the Olympic 400 m final, Sydney 2000. Winning the 400.

Freeman was the first Australian Indigenous person to become a Commonwealth Games gold medallist at age 16 in 1990. 1994 was her breakthrough season. At the 1994 Commonwealth Games in Canada, Freeman won gold in both the 200 m and 400 m. She also won the silver medal in the 1996 Olympics and came first at the 1997 World Championships, in the 400 m event.

In 1998 Freeman took a break from running due to injury. She returned from injury in form with a first place in the 400 m at the 1999 World Championships. She announced her retirement from athletics in 2003.


A wonderful day, she sure did us proud.

Quite an amazing moment.

Tiny 15cm Chinese 'teapot' found during a garage clear-out in lockdown sells for $700,000A rare imperial Chinese `teapot´ which could fetch up to half a million pounds ahead of its auction at Hansons Auctioneers in Derbyshire on Thursday. The tiny pot - a Chinese wine ewer - which nearly ended up at a charity shop, is believed to be one of only four in existence and is attracting interest from bidders around the world (Jacob King/PA)

An 18th century Qianlong-era Chinese wine jug that almost ended up in a charity shop sold selling for almost 10 times its original guide price at Hansons Auctioneers in Derbyshire.


Hansons Auctioneers had initially hoped the 18th century 'treasure' would fetch between £20,000 and £40,000, before upping its pre-sale estimate to £150,000.

A tiny 15cm Chinese 'tea pot' found during lockdown in a garage clear-out has fetched £390,000 at auction in Derbyshire  

A tiny 15cm Chinese 'tea pot' found during lockdown in a garage clear-out has fetched £390,000 at auction in Derbyshire

Hansons Auctioneers had initially hoped the 18th century 'treasure' would fetch between £20,000 and £40,000, before upping its pre-sale estimate to £150,000.

A tiny 15cm Chinese 'tea pot' found during lockdown in a garage clear-out has fetched £390,000 at auction in Derbyshire  

A tiny 15cm Chinese 'tea pot' found during lockdown in a garage clear-out has fetched £390,000 at auction in Derbyshire

Experts at Hansons dated the jug, which they believe may have been handled by Chinese Emperor Qianlong, to the 18th century, after it was brought into the firm's Etwall premises, near Derby, for a free valuation earlier this year.

The jug's vendor, a semi-retired manual worker from Swadlincote, near Burton-on-Trent, believes it was brought back from the Far East by his grandfather during the Second World War.

The 51-year-old admitted he had considered sending the jug to a charity shop.

He said: 'We believe it was brought back to England from China by my grandfather who was stationed in the Far East during the Second World War and was awarded a Burma Star.

Hansons' owner Charles Hanson said the sum received would be potentially life-changing 

Hansons' owner Charles Hanson said the sum received would be potentially life-changing

'Mum passed away 17 years ago, then dad nine years ago and the teapot ended up in a loft in Newhall. Later it was boxed up and moved to a relative's garage in Church Gresley.'

The owner added: 'But then lockdown came along and I finally had time to go through the boxes in the garage.'

The winning bidder was not named during the auction on Thursday, but Hansons' owner Charles Hanson said the £390,000 would be potentially life-changing.

Experts at Hansons dated the jug, which they believe may have been handled by Chinese Emperor Qianlong  

Experts at Hansons dated the jug, which they believe may have been handled by Chinese Emperor Qianlong

Eight phone bidders from around the world, including China and America, battled to own the item which was eventually secured by a London buyer.

Speaking after a telephone bidder declined to up the bidding to £400,000, Mr Hanson told those present in the sale room: 'A wonderful result and congratulations to the vendor.

'What a find, destined for a charity shop and destined to not be noticed, and destined now to make national news.'

The historic peony-patterned jug, believed to be one of four in existence, was destined for a charity shop after gathering dust in a Derbyshire home  

The historic peony-patterned jug, believed to be one of four in existence, was destined for a charity shop after gathering dust in a Derbyshire home

Mr Hanson added: 'I am absolutely delighted for our vendor. When objects achieve results like this, it's a potentially life-changing sum for their owners.

'This is one of the most important objects I've ever had the privilege of selling. It has to be the best lockdown find ever.'

In a post-auction statement issued through Hansons, the seller said: 'This will change a few things for us all. It's come at a really good time.

'I sat and watched the auction live at home with my brother and family. It was tense. I got a few cans of Guinness in beforehand. We'll be going for a drink tonight and toasting grandad.'

It's so preety, the man who brought it home from the war must have thought so too.   

What a lovely story Celia. It looked like it would only hold enough for 2 cups maybe? I love going to old junk shops and looking at all the old China, wouldn't know an antique if I saw one but sometimes an old teapot takes my fancy and I'll buy it and plant succulents in them, they make great pot plants. 


Oh wow you may have a first class ancient teapot in your back garden Hola; have you a photo of any of them please?


So beautiful and so tiny. Your teapot garden sounds lovely Hola.

I have a very distictive Royal Doulton "wattle" tea set from my mum's collection. I've never been able to find another like it.

Has anyone here come across this particular pattern?

Thanks Toot ... I'll put it on my "to do" list.

1580 – Sir Francis Drake completes his circumnavigation of the Earth.

Vice Admiral Sir Francis Drake (1540–1596) was an English sea captain and privateer of the Elizabethan era. Elizabeth I awarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588.

Drake carried out the second circumnavigation of the world in a single expedition, from 1577 to 1580, and was the first to complete the voyage as captain while leading the expedition throughout the entire circumnavigation.

With his incursion into the Pacific Ocean, he claimed what is now California for the English and inaugurated an era of conflict with the Spanish on the western coast of the Americas, an area that had previously been largely unexplored by western shipping.

Sir Francis Drake by Marcus Gheeraerts 1591 and the Armada Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I.

With the success of the Panama isthmus raid, in 1577 Elizabeth I of England sent Drake to start an expedition against the Spanish along the Pacific coast of the Americas. Drake set sail on 13 December aboard Pelican with four other ships and 164 men. He soon added a sixth ship, Mary, a Portuguese merchant ship that had been captured.

Drake's fleet suffered great attrition; he scuttled both Christopher and the flyboat Swan due to loss of men on the Atlantic crossing. The crew discovered that Mary had rotting timbers, so they burned the ship. The three remaining ships of his convoy departed for the Magellan Strait at the southern tip of South America. In September 1578 Drake made it to the Pacific, but violent storms destroyed the Marigold and forced the Elizabeth to return to England, leaving only the Pelican.

A map of Drake's route around the world. The northern limit of Drake's exploration of the Pacific coast of North America is still in dispute.

Drake pushed onwards in his lone flagship, now renamed the Golden Hind. The Golden Hind sailed north along the Pacific coast of South America, attacking Spanish ports and pillaging towns. Near Lima, Drake captured a Spanish ship laden with 25,000 pesos of Peruvian gold. Drake also discovered news of another ship, Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion, which was sailing west towards Manila. It would come to be called the Cacafuego. Drake gave chase and eventually captured the treasure ship, which proved his most profitable capture. After looting the Cacafuego, Drake turned north, landing on the coast of California on 17 June 1579.

Drake left the Pacific coast, heading southwest to catch the winds that would carry his ship across the Pacific, and a few months later reached the Moluccas, a group of islands in the western Pacific, in eastern modern-day Indonesia. He made multiple stops on his way toward the tip of Africa, eventually rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and reached Sierra Leone by 22 July 1580.

On 26 September 1580, Golden Hind sailed into Plymouth with Drake and 59 remaining crew aboard, along with a rich cargo of spices and captured Spanish treasures. The Queen's half-share of the cargo surpassed the rest of the crown's income for that entire year. Drake was hailed as the first Englishman to circumnavigate the Earth.

A replica of Sir Francis Drake's ship, the Golden Hind, lying permanently in Brixham Harbour.

Drake's exploits made him a hero to the English, but his privateering led the Spanish to brand him a pirate, known to them as El Draque. King Philip II allegedly offered a reward for his capture or death of 20,000 ducats.


Sad to see a lot of bowling clubs now closing in Sydney, try as they might with barefoot bowling and cheap drinks, the young are not into the game Sir Francis loved to play. lol

1687 – The city council of Amsterdam votes to support William of Orange's invasion of England, which became the Glorious Revolution.

William III of England, widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672, and King of England, Ireland, and Scotland from 1689 until his death. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy".

William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II, who died a week before William's birth. His mother Mary, Princess Royal, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, he married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, Mary, the daughter of his maternal uncle James, Duke of York.

William III and Mary II.

A Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. In 1685, his Catholic father-in-law, James, Duke of York, became king of England, Ireland and Scotland. James's reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain.

William, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the "Glorious Revolution". On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham. James was deposed and William III and Mary II became joint sovereigns in his place. They reigned together until her death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch.

His reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover. The Glorious Revolution permanently ended any chance of Catholicism becoming re-established in England.


Strange how a Dutchman became the king of England, history is bizarre at times.

1933 – As gangster Machine Gun Kelly surrenders to the FBI, he shouts out, "Don't shoot, G-Men!", which becomes a nickname for FBI agents.

George Kelly Barnes (1895–1954), better known as "Machine Gun Kelly", was an American gangster from Memphis, Tennessee, during the prohibition era. He attended Central High School in Memphis. His nickname came from his favourite weapon, a Thompson submachine gun.

His most infamous crime was the kidnapping of oil tycoon and businessman Charles F. Urschel in July 1933 for which he, and his gang, collected a $200,000 ransom. Their victim had collected and left considerable evidence that assisted the subsequent FBI investigation that eventually led to Kelly's arrest in Memphis, Tennessee, on 26 September 1933. His crimes also included bootlegging and armed robbery.

Machine Gun Kelly being led to prison by United States Marshals following his conviction.

Kelly's last criminal activity proved disastrous when he kidnapped a wealthy Oklahoma City resident, Charles F. Urschel and his friend Walter R. Jarrett. An investigation conducted at Memphis disclosed that the Kellys were living at the residence of J. C. Tichenor.

Special agents from Birmingham, Alabama, were immediately dispatched to Memphis, where, in the early morning hours of 26 September 1933, a raid was conducted. George and Kathryn Kelly were taken into custody by FBI agents and Memphis police. Caught without a weapon, George Kelly allegedly cried, "Don't shoot, G-Men! Don't shoot, G-Men!" as he surrendered to FBI agents. The term, which had applied to all federal investigators, became synonymous with FBI agents.

The couple was immediately removed to Oklahoma City. On 12 October 1933, George and Kathryn Kelly were convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment.


Machine Gun Kelly is an American rapper, singer, songwriter.


LOL ... a far reach from the original.

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